Helenium amarum (Raf.) H. Rock
Yellow Sneezeweed, Bitterweed, Yellow Bitterweed, Yellowdicks, Slender-leaved Sneezeweed, Fine-leaved Sneezweed, Yellow Dog-fennel
Asteraceae (Aster Family)
USDA Symbol: HEAM
Helenium amarum has stems covered with almost-threadlike leaves.
The genus is thought to have been named by Linnaeus for Helen of Troy. The legend is that the flowers sprung up from the ground where her tears fell.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Annual
Size Notes: Up to about 3 feet tall.
Flower: Flower 1 inch.
Fruit: Fruit is a cypsela (pl. cypselae). Though technically incorrect, the fruit is often referred to as an achene.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov , Dec
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CA , CT , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , MI , MO , MS , NC , NE , OH , OK , PA , SC , TN , TX , VA , WI
Native Habitat: Prairie, Plains, Meadows, Pastures, Savannas, Woodlands' edge, Opening
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Disturbed, Acid-based, Calcareous, Limestone-based, Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Can be mowed, Pocket prairie, Wildflower meadow, Aromatic
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Fredericksburg Nature Center - Fredericksburg, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Austin, TX
Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Texas Discovery Gardens - Dallas, TX
Brackenridge Field Laboratory - Austin, TX
Stengl Biological Research Station - Smithville, TX
Herbarium Specimen(s)NPSOT 0920 Collected Aug 27. 1994 in Bexar County by Mike Fox
NPSOT 0585 Collected May 11, 1990 in Bexar County by Harry Cliffe
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-560 Collected 2007-08-28 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
LBJWC-24 Collected 2006-05-22 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
BibliographyBibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 281 - Shinners & Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (1999) Diggs, G. M.; B. L. Lipscomb; B. O'Kennon; W. F...
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.
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Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Research LiteratureReslit 146 - Woolly Croton (Croton capitatus) and Bitter Sneezeweed (Helenium amarum) Control in the Blackland Prairie of Texas (1990) R. W. Bovey and R. E. Meyer
Reslit 1146 - Optimal eradication: when to stop looking for an invasive plant (2006) T. J. Regan, M. A. McCarthy, P. W. J. Baxter, F. D...
Reslit 1856 - Growth and Survival of Bitterweed, Helenium Amarum, in Relation to Nutrition and Competitors (1964) D. Caplenor
Reslit 1857 - Life cycle of Helenium amarum (1961) D. Caplenor
Reslit 2344 - Temperature Control of Germination of Helenium amarum Seeds (1967) D. Caplenor
Reslit 2526 - Ecological life cycle of Helenium amarum in central Tennessee (1973) J. M. Baskin and C. C. Baskin
Reslit 2527 - Do seeds of Helenium amarum have a light requirement for germination (1975) J. M. Baskin and C. C. Baskin
Reslit 2688 - Distributions of Florida sneezeweeds (Helenium), with a range extension for Helenium autumnale L (1992) W. K. Taylor, Z. A. Prusak
Reslit 3174 - THE BUDS AND THE BEES Flowers That Leave a Bad Taste in Your Mouth (2015) Bender, Becky
This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Helenium amarum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Helenium amarum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Helenium amarum
MetadataRecord Modified: 2022-12-27
Research By: TWC Staff