En EspaŅol

Q. Who is Mr. Smarty Plants?

A: There are those who suspect Wildflower Center volunteers are the culpable and capable culprits. Yet, others think staff members play some, albeit small, role. You can torture us with your plant questions, but we will never reveal the Green Guru's secret identity.

Help us grow by giving to the Plant Database Fund or by becoming a member

Did you know you can access the Native Plant Information Network with your web-enabled smartphone?

Share

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants

Ask Mr. Smarty Plants is a free service provided by the staff and volunteers at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center.

Search Smarty Plants
    
 
See a list of all Smarty Plants questions
Can't find the answer in our existing FAQs, submit a question to Mr. Smarty Plants.
Need help with plant identification, visit the plant identification page.
 
rate this answer
1 rating

Thursday - August 06, 2009

From: Mission, TX
Region: Southwest
Topic: Butterfly Gardens, Herbs/Forbs
Title: What species of Aristolochia occur in Hidalgo County, TX?
Answered by: Jimmy Mills and Joe Marcus

QUESTION:

What species of Aristolochia or are in the Aristolochiaceae family occur in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, particularly Hidalgo Co., TX. Both Pipevine and Polydamas Swallowtail butterflies occur down here, but I cannot find the species they would use.

ANSWER:

The  Aristilochiaceae, or Birthwort family is a family of flowering plants with 8 genera and about 400 species. The type genus is Aristolochia, also known as pipevine. Many members of Aristolochia contain the toxin aristolochic acid which discourages herbivores. Pipevine swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on pipevine, and the caterpillars dine on the plant but are not affected by the toxin. This causes the adult butterfly to taste bad to predators, thus affording them some protection. The adults are pretty consistent in their choice of plants where they lay their eggs.

Our Native Plant Database   lists 8 species of Aristolochia that are found in the US, six of which occur in Texas. Four of these occur in south Texas, and two species are known to occur in Hidalgo County.

Aristolochia erecta (swanflower), larval host for Battus philenor, Hidalgo County.  This is very likely the species attracting Pipevine Swallowtails to your garden.  The plants often grow in grassy areas and because they're very small with long narrow leaves, they are almost invisible in grass.  Watching a female Pipevine Swallowtail fluttering about a grassy area and then inspecting the places she alights will often reveal the location of Swanflower in the grass.

Aristolochia pentandra (Marsh's dutchman's pipe),  not listed as a larval host, Hidalgo County.  This species' habitat is restricted to wetland areas.

Aristolochia tomentosa (woolly dutchman's pipe) , larval host for Battus philenor,  Bexar County.

Aristolochia serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot) , larval host for Battus philenor Edwards and Bandera Counties.

The other Pipevine swallowtail that occurs in Hidalgo county is Battus polydamas, but its larval host is listed only as Aristolochia species.  This butterfly prefers the more toxic pipevines as larval host plants, so it is likely that Polydamas Swallowtails are mainly attracted to Marsh's Dutchman's-pipe and exotic Aristolochia species grown in private gardens. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More Butterfly Gardens Questions

Creating a garden based on fragrance
May 04, 2012 - I would like to know which Fragrant Flowers are easy to grow and hearty for the climate i live in. Eastern part of washington state. Desert like in summer, warm summers.
view the full question and answer

Perennial plants for butterfly garden
June 18, 2007 - Hello, I live in Plano, TX and I am trying to create a backyard garden which will attract butterflies. I prefer bulbs and perennials so that I will not have to replant again and again like annuals. A...
view the full question and answer

Type of non-native parsley for swallowtails from Austin
September 02, 2012 - What is the best type of parsley for Yellow Swallowtails? Lost a caterpillar when it ran out of food from a parsley plant. I can't remember what kind of parsley. It would not feed on Rue, cilantro...
view the full question and answer

Identification of plant with small lilac flowers in Laredo
May 14, 2013 - Need help identifying the following: small lilac flowers in a cluster with seed pods, unpleasant scent which can be up to 3 feet tall ..wild flower or weed? am interested if it attracts hummingbirds...
view the full question and answer

Butterfly/hummingbird garden plants for Hill Country, TX
February 04, 2011 - What drought resistant plants would you recommend for a Hill Country butterfly/hummingbird garden that receives at least a half day of sun? It has afternoon exposure.
view the full question and answer

Smarty Plants's Facebook profile Support the Wildflower Center by Donating Online or Becoming a Member today.

Mr. Smarty Plants wants you to be his Facebook friend. Click the Facebook icon to add yourself to Mr. Smarty Plants list of friends.
E-NEWSLETTER | BECOME A MEMBER | DONATE NOW | MEDIA | SITEMAP
© 2014 Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center