Rivina humilis L.
Pigeonberry, Rouge Plant, Baby-peppers, Bloodberry
Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed Family)
USDA Symbol: RIHU2
Pigeonberry is a perennial herb usually 1-3 feet tall that grows beneath trees and shrubs. The flowers are about 1/4 inch across, white to pink, growing on the last 2-3 inches of the stems. The fruits are numerous, red and almost translucent, often appearing on the lower part of the stem while the upper part is still blooming. They are a choice food for many kinds of birds. The leaves are 1-3 inches long and wavy on the edges (248).
Pigeonberry appeals to the eye when it blooms pale pink and bears scarlet fruit simultaneously.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Fruit Type: Berry
Size Notes: Usually up to about 3 feet tall, may reach 6 feet.
Fruit: Red to orange, 2-3.5 mm.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Pink
Bloom Time: Jan , Feb , Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov , Dec
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , AZ , FL , HI , LA , MS , NM , OK , TX
Native Distribution: Southern North America from Florida to Arizona, north to Oklahoma and Arkansas, south through Central America and the Caribbean to tropical South America
Native Habitat: In moist or alluvial soils in partial shade. Also in hilly chaparral.
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil Description: Moist and well-drained sand, sandy loam, loam, clay, and calcareous soils.
Conditions Comments: Prefers light shade and moist but well drained soil. Without supplemental water in summer, it may go dormant.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Low-growing herb layer plant, decorative fruit and flowers
Use Wildlife: Fruit-birds
Use Other: The red fruits have been used for cosmetics, hence the name Rouge Plant.
Warning: Caution: the fruit and leaves are toxic if ingested.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Deer Resistant: Moderate
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Seed and cuttings.
Seed Collection: Collect berries when plump and red. Allow to dry spread out.
Seed Treatment: Seeds germinate well and grow slowly.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Water during summer drought.
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Native grasses for East Texas that require no mowing or watering
June 16, 2010
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National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Naval Air Station Kingsville - Kingsville, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Austin, TX
Brackenridge Field Laboratory - Austin, TX
NPSOT - Fredericksburg Chapter - Fredericksburg, TX
NPSOT - Austin Chapter - Austin, TX
National Butterfly Center - Mission, TX
NPSOT - Williamson County Chapter - Georgetown, TX
Herbarium Specimen(s)NPSOT 0118 Collected June 7, 1991 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps
NPSOT 0071 Collected Sept. 12, 1990 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-MM-756 Collected 2010-07-25 in Hays County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
BibliographyBibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 281 - Shinners & Mahler's Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas (1999) Diggs, G. M.; B. L. Lipscomb; B. O'Kennon; W. F...
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.
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Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Research LiteratureReslit 964 - Potential allelopathic effects of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) aqueous extract on germination and growth of selected Florida native plants (2005) E. C. Morgan and W. A. Overholt
Reslit 1381 - Effect of ammonia fumes on total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in Rivina humilis Linn (2000) M. V. M. Teresa and C. T. Anitha
This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Rivina humilis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Rivina humilis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Rivina humilis
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-04-26
Research By: TWC Staff