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Oenothera biennis L.
Common Evening-primrose, King's Cure-all, Common Evening Primrose
Onagraceae (Evening Primrose Family)
Synonym(s): Oenothera biennis ssp. caeciarum, Oenothera biennis ssp. centralis, Oenothera biennis var. pycnocarpa, Oenothera muricata, Oenothera pycnocarpa
USDA Symbol: OEBI
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
At the top of a leafy stalk bloom lemon-scented, large yellow flowers. Stem hairy, often purple-tinged. King’s Cure-all or Common Evening Primrose is an erect, 2-6 ft. biennial with leafy, branched stems from a basal rosette. The bright-yellow, four-petaled flowers, up to 2 inches across, open at night. These fragrant flowers occur in a many-flowered, terminal spike.
The flowers of this night-flowering biennial open in the evening and close by noon. The plant takes 2 years to complete its life cycle, with basal leaves becoming established the first year, and flowering occurring the second. The roots are eaten by some wildlife, and the seeds are important as bird feed. Most of the evening-primroses have yellow flowers. Showy Evening-primrose (O. speciosa) has pink or white flowers.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Biennial
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: Up to about 6 feet tall.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CA , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , MT , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV
Canada: AB , BC , MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK
Native Distribution: Nf. to s.e. Alt., s. to GA, LA & n.e. TX
Native Habitat: Dry, rocky plains; disturbed areas; lake shores; open woods
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Rocky or sandy soils.
Conditions Comments: Common evening primrose does well in newly established landscapes, but does not persist. Seeds stay, however, and germinate if soil is disturbed.
BenefitUse Wildlife: The flowers of this plant attract a variety of moths. Small mammals eat the roots and leaves of young plants. Birds eat the seeds. Deer graze older plants.
Use Food: Roots and shoots edible.
Use Medicinal: Clinical trials with Evening Primrose oil indicate that it may be evaluable in treating a number of disorders, including heart disease and arthritis. (Clough) Studies have shown that evening-primrose oil can help treat eczema, asthma, migraine headaches, heart disease, high coholesterol, inflammation, PMS, breast problems, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and even alcoholism. (Kershaw) Amerindians used root tea for obesity, bowel pains; poulticed roots for piles, bruises; rubbed root on muscles to give athletes strength (Foster & Duke) Whole plant soaked in warm water used as a poultice to heal bruises.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Attracts: Birds , Hummingbirds
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
PropagationDescription: Sow unstratified seed in fall â€“ stratified in spring. Tip cuttings can be taken in spring.
Seed Collection: Collect in Aug. to Nov.
Seed Treatment: Dry stratification greatly increases the germination rate.
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Texas Discovery Gardens - Dallas, TX
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
BibliographyBibref 610 - Edible wild plants of the prairie : an ethnobotanical guide (1987) Kindscher, K.
Bibref 417 - Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America (2000) Foster, S. & J. A. Duke
Bibref 1294 - The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter 1989 VOL. 6, NO.2 - Wildflower Network Operates in Louisiana, Wildflower Handbook Published, Researc...
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Oenothera biennis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Oenothera biennis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Oenothera biennis
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-02-21
Research By: TWC Staff