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Lithospermum incisum (Fringed puccoon)
Marcus, Joseph A.

Lithospermum incisum

Lithospermum incisum Lehm.

Fringed Puccoon, Golden Puccoon, Narrowleaf Puccoon, Narrow-leaved Puccoon, Puccoon, Narrowleaf Gromwell, Fringed Gromwell, Narrowleaf Stoneseed

Boraginaceae (Borage Family)

Synonym(s): Batschia linearifolia, Lithospermum angustifolium, Lithospermum linearifolium, Lithospermum mandanense

USDA Symbol: LIIN2

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)

One to several leafy stems, branched above on older plants, rise 6-16 in. high. Leaves are alternate, 2-4 inches long with rolled edges, larger near the base. Tubular, lemon yellow flowers with conspicuously fringed lobes are in clusters at the end of stems which are 6-12 inches long. They are trumpet-shaped with 5 petal-like lobes which open to 1 inch across, with crinkled margins. Very narrow leaves are less noticably hairy than other puccoons.

The genus name means "stone seed," referring to the hard nutlets. This species produces few fruits from the showy flowers; instead, late in the season inconspicuous flowers that remain closed produce fruit in the lower leaf axils. There are several species in the West, one white-flowered, the rest with shorter, yellow corollas.


From the Image Gallery

44 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Inflorescence: Terminal
Fruit Type: Schizocarp
Size Notes: 6-16 inches tall.
Fruit: Nutlets, 1-4.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Apr , May , Jun


USA: AR , AZ , CA , CO , FL , IA , IL , IN , KS , LA , MI , MN , MO , MT , ND , NE , NM , NV , OK , SD , TX , UT , WI , WY
Canada: MB , ON
Native Distribution: S. Ont. to s.e. B.C., s. to KY, AR, TX & AZ
Native Habitat: Dry prairies; open woods; disturbed areas

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Sandy, Dry sandy, clay or loamy soils.
Conditions Comments: It has very narrow leaves that are less noticably hairy than other puccoons. It also has tubular, lemon yellow flowers with conspicuously fringed lobes cluster at stem tips.


Use Ornamental: Pocket prairie, Wildflower meadow, Color, Blooms ornamental
Use Medicinal: Navajos chewed root for coughs and colds. (Weiner)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes


Propagation Material: Seeds
Description: Soak seeds in hot (135 degrees) water overnight, and plant immediately. Germination is unreliable. Propagation may be accomplished from 2-inch root cuttings. Treat cuttings with hormones and plant in fall. Mature plants may be divided.
Seed Collection: Late in summer, the plant produces smaller, almost invisible flowers which fertilize themselves without opening. It is from these late, hard-to-see flowers – not the showy yellow ones – that produce fertile seed. Inside each of four oblong nutlets is a bony, white seed.
Seed Treatment: Some references suggest stratification.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Fredericksburg Nature Center - Fredericksburg, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Austin, TX
Sibley Nature Center - Midland, TX
Stengl Biological Research Station - Smithville, TX

Herbarium Specimen(s)

NPSOT 0503 Collected Apr. 7, 1992 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps

1 specimen(s) available in the Digital Herbarium


Bibref 1207 - Earth Medicine, Earth Food (1990) Michael A. Weiner
Bibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes (2002) Wasowski, Sally
Bibref 765 - McMillen's Texas Gardening: Wildflowers (1998) Howard, D.
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter

Additional resources

USDA: Find Lithospermum incisum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Lithospermum incisum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Lithospermum incisum


Record Modified: 2023-05-30
Research By: TWC Staff

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