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Marcus, Joseph A.
Helianthus annuus L.
Synonym(s): Helianthus annuus ssp. jaegeri, Helianthus annuus ssp. lenticularis, Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus, Helianthus annuus var. lenticularis, Helianthus annuus var. macrocarpus, Helianthus annuus var. texanus, Helianthus aridus, Helianthus lenticularis
USDA Symbol: HEAN3
Common sunflower is a widely branching, stout annual, 1 1/2-8 ft. tall, with coarsely hairy leaves and stems. The terminal flowers heads are large and showy, up to 5 in. across. A tall, coarse leafy plant with a hairy stem commonly branched in the upper half and bearing several or many flower heads, the central maroon disk surrounded by many bright yellow rays. Yellow ray flowers surround brown disk flowers.
The state flower of Kansas. The heads follow the sun each day, facing eastward in the morning, westward at sunset; the name in Spanish means turns toward the sun. The plant has been cultivated in Central North America since pre-Columbian times; yellow dye obtained from the flowers, and a black or dull blue dye from the seeds, were once important in Native American basketry and weaving. Native Americans also ground the seeds for flour and used its oil for cooking and dressing hair. In the 19th century it was believed that plants growing near a home would protect from malaria. In the United States and Eurasia seeds from cultivated strains are now used for cooking oil and livestock feed. Many variants have been developed, some with one huge head topping a stalk 9-16 ft (3-5 m) tall, others with maroon rays. Prairie Sunflower (H. petiolaris), found throughout the Great Plains and similar to the wild forms of Common Sunflower, has scales on the disk in the center of the head tipped by white hairs, easily visible when the central flowers are spread apart. Developed in a single large head variety by Russians.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Annual Habit: Herb Size Notes:
From 1 1/2 to 8 feet tall. Leaf:
Fruit: Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
, WY Canada: AB
, SK Native Distribution:
Man. & MN
& westward; naturalized to the Atlantic Native Habitat:
Dry, open areas; disturbed sites
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Dry, disturbed clays or heavy sands.
Conditions Comments: Common sunflower spreads rapidly by seed, especially in disturbed sites. It has been shown to have an allelopathic effect on other plants. Many subspecies intergrade throught the species range. The cultivated giant sunflower is a member of H. annuus, derived through artificial selection.
Sunflowers intermixed with other annuals provide good cover for many species of wildlife. Seeds are sought by many species of wild birds. Use Food:
Sunflower seeds are popular in breads, cereals, salads and many other dishes. Although we usually think of only the seeds as edible, the bright yellow strap-like florets
make a colourful salad garnish. (Kershaw) Use Medicinal: Flower
heads with bracts removed boiled to make remedy for pulmonary troubles. Poultice of flowers used for burns. (Kindscher)
Crushed root applied as a mash to draw blister. (Weiner)
Roots chewed and applied to swollen area of rattlesnake bites after venom was sucked out. (Steiner)
American Indians used flower
tea for lung ailments, malaria. Leaf tea taken for high fevers; astringent poultice on snake bites and spider bites. Seeds and leaves said to be diuretic, expectorant.
Use Other: In
the 19th century it was believed that plants growing near a home would protect from malaria. (Niering)
Recent uses include making silage from the plant and extracting the oil to make soap. (Niering) Conspicuous Flowers:
PropagationDescription: Use treated seeds. Germination is poor.
Seed Collection: Seeds are often eaten by birds, making collection tricky.
Seed Treatment: Stratification is required.
Commercially Avail: yes
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Mr. Smarty Plants says
The most common wildflower in North America
January 16, 2008
Hi Mr. Smartyplants,
What the most common wildflower in North America? My friend thinks it's the oxeye daisy. Is this correct? I work for a puzzle publishing company, and am doing research for a the...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
Herbarium Specimen(s)NPSOT 0080
Collected Oct. 19, 1990 in Bexar County by Mollie WaltonNPSOT 0023
Collected July 11, 1990 in Bexar County by Judith C. BerryNPSOT 0256
Collected July 24, 1992 in Comal County by Mary Beth White
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-209
Collected 2008-07-08 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower CenterLBJWC-538
Collected 2007-07-30 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
Record Last Modified: 2011-04-06
Research By: TWC Staff