Fragaria virginiana Duchesne
Virginia Strawberry, Wild Strawberry
Rosaceae (Rose Family)
USDA Symbol: FRVI
Virginia Strawberry or Wild Strawberry is a ground-hugging plant rising from a fibrous, perennial root system. Hairy leaf petioles, up to 6 in. long, each bear a single trifoliate leaf. The hairy flower stalk gives rise to a loose cluster of small, five-petaled flowers followed by tasty, wild strawberries.
Found in patches in fields and dry openings, this plant produces the finest, sweetest, wild strawberry. The edible portion of the strawberry is actually the central portion of the flower (receptacle) which enlarges greatly with maturity and is covered with the embedded, dried, seed-like fruit. Cultivated Strawberries are hybrids developed from this native species and the South American one. The similar Wood Strawberry (F. vesca) has seed-like fruit on the surface, not embedded, and sepals that point backwards.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Trifoliate
Fruit Type: Accessory , Achene , Aggregate
Size Notes: Up to about 4 inches tall.
Fruit: Red, aggregated achenes set on the surface of the edible fruit.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov
DistributionUSA: AK , AL , AR , AZ , CA , CO , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , MT , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NV , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY
Canada: AB , BC , MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK
Native Distribution: Nf. & e. Que. to Man., s. to GA & OK
Native Habitat: Fields; prairies; woodland edges
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Sun , Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Variable. Tolerant of moderately acid soil.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Berries attract wildlife.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Larval Host: Gray Hairstreak
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
Supports Conservation Biological Control
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
Learn more at BAMONA
Gray Hairstreak |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Seed germination is poor. Vegetative propagation, by separating rooted plantlets in spring or early summer or by stolon internode cuttings, is an effective means of increase.
Seed Treatment: Stratification enhances germination.
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Edible Plants for North Georgia
January 10, 2010
We are planning a forest food garden in the hollers of the N GA Mountains. Which edible fruit, nut, berry, herb and creepers would be best for this reddish, clay-like soil? The food garden is in...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden - Santa Barbara, CA
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes (2002) Wasowski, Sally
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Fragaria virginiana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Fragaria virginiana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Fragaria virginiana
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-02-10
Research By: TWC Staff