Crataegus douglasii Lindl.
Rosaceae (Rose Family)
Synonym(s): Crataegus columbiana, Crataegus douglasii var. douglasii
USDA Symbol: CRDO2
A thorny, much-branched shrub or small tree from 6-30 ft. in height. Small tree with compact, rounded crown of stout, spreading branches; often a thicket-forming shrub. Twigs are reddish and bear thick, oval, toothed leaves. White flowers occur in dense, terminal clusters and are followed by blue-black berries.
This species is a handsome ornamental with showy white flowers, glossy foliage, and odd, shiny black fruits. It is named for its discoverer, David Douglas (1798-1834), the Scottish botanical explorer. Cattle and sheep browse the foliage; pheasants, partridges, quail, and other birds consume the berries. The most widespread western member of its genus, Black Hawthorn is also the only species north to southeastern Alaska.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Fruit Type: Pome
Size Notes: Up to about 30 feet tall.
Autumn Foliage: yes
Fruit: Black, Purple
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White
Bloom Time: May , Jun
DistributionUSA: AK , CA , ID , MI , MN , MT , ND , NV , OR , SD , UT , WA , WI , WY
Canada: AB , BC , ON , SK
Native Distribution: AK to n. CA; widely distributed in the Rockies; also occuring in s.w. Ont., n. MI & MN
Native Habitat: Open woods; rocky stream banks; meadows
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Drought Tolerance: High
Soil Description: Moist soils.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Only a few birds like the fruit of Crataegus and, consequently, they remain effective for a long time.
Warning: Plant has thorns or prickles.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Gray Hairstreak, Mourning Cloak, and Azure Butterflies.
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
Learn more at BAMONA
Mourning Cloak |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Stored/treated seed will germinate. For fresh, dried fruit, soak in water 2-3 days to soften, remove pulp and sow immediately. This gives fair results.
Seed Treatment: 6-8 weeks of moist chilling improves germination of stored seed. Scarification may also be necessary.
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden - Santa Barbara, CA
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
BibliographyBibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 30 - Calflora (2018) Calflora
Webref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Crataegus douglasii in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Crataegus douglasii in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Crataegus douglasii
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-05-09
Research By: TWC Staff