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Polygonatum biflorum (Smooth solomon's seal)
Reveal, James L.

Polygonatum biflorum

Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott

Smooth Solomon's Seal, Great Solomon's-seal, Sealwort

Liliaceae (Lily Family)


USDA Symbol: pobi2

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)

The zig-zag arching stalks are from 1-5 ft. long. Nodding, greenish-white, tubular flowers hang in pairs from the axils of the oval, conspicuously veined leaves. Hanging from the leaf axils on an arching stem are a few (often 2) greenish-white, bell-like flowers. Blue berries follow the flowers of this perennial. The root is rhizomatous but non-colonizing.

The graceful arching stems and pendulous flowers (often hidden) characterize this common plant. Another, almost identical species, Hairy Solomon's Seal (P. pubescens), is distinguished by minute hairs along veins on undersides of leaves. A much larger variety of this species, Great Solomon's Seal (P. biflorum var. commutatum), has larger flowers, 2-10 per cluster, and may be 7 feet (2.1 m) tall. The rootstalk, or rhizome, of the Solomon's Seal is jointed; the leaf stalk breaks away from it, leaving a distinctive scar said to resemble the official seal of King Solomon. Native Americans and colonists used the starchy rhizomes as food.


From the Image Gallery

22 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Berry
Size Notes: Usually 2 feet tall, but occasionally exceeds 3 feet.
Leaf: Bright yellow-green
Flower: Flowers 3/4 inch
Fruit: Black, Blue A quarter inch to a half inch.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: White , Yellow , Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun
Bloom Notes: Flowers typically pale green to white.


USA: AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV , WY
Canada: MB , NB , NS , ON , QC
Native Distribution: Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, south to FL and TX, up the Connecticut R. valley, s. MI, MN, & ND
Native Habitat: Rich, dry to moist woods; thickets; calcareous hammocks

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry , Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Soil Description: Moist, rich, acid soils, though also occurs in calcareous areas. Prefers high humus. Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay.
Conditions Comments: Does best in rich woodland soil but quite versatile and will do well at the base of trees.


Use Ornamental: An understory plant used in eastern North America for its arching stems and attractive leaves.
Use Wildlife: Roots consumed by mammals. Fruits attract birds.
Use Food: EDIBLE PARTS / PREPARATION: Young shoots can be boiled for 10 minutes and served like asparagus. Whole shoots can be cut up and put into salads. The rootstocks can be added to stew or boiled for 20 minutes and eaten like potatoes. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.)

First Nations People and colonists used the starchy rhizomes as food. (Niering)
Warning: POISONOUS PARTS: Berries. Only low toxicity if ingested. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea. Toxic Principle: Anthraquinone.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies


Propagation Material: Root Cuttings , Seeds
Description: Plant seeds immediately or treatment will be necessary. Rhizome cuttings will grow but may lie dormant a whole year. Divide the rhizomes in spring or fall when the plants are dormant. Set them horizontally, buds up, 18 in. apart and 1 in. deep.
Seed Collection: Collect in Sept.
Seed Treatment: Cold-moist stratify for 2 months at 40 degrees.
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

National Wetland Indicator Status

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE


Bibref 928 - 100 easy-to-grow native plants for Canadian gardens (2005) Johnson, L.; A. Leyerle
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 765 - McMillen's Texas Gardening: Wildflowers (1998) Howard, D.
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

From the Archive

Wildflower Newsletter 1993 VOL. 10, NO.4 - How to Hire a Garden Designer, Director's Report, Wild Collected or Propagated P...

Additional resources

USDA: Find Polygonatum biflorum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Polygonatum biflorum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Polygonatum biflorum


Record Modified: 2019-12-06
Research By: TWC Staff

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