Pinus virginiana Mill.
Virginia Pine, Jersey Pine, Scrub Pine
Pinaceae (Pine Family)
USDA Symbol: pivi2
Virginia pine is a straggling, scrubby evergreen, usually 15-40 ft. tall, becoming flat-topped with age. Outstretched limbs spring irregularly from the reddish-brown trunk. Cones are sharp to the touch due to prickly-like appendages. Short-needled tree with open, broad, irregular crown of long spreading branches; often a shrub.
Used principally for pulpwood and lumber, it is hardier than most pines and suitable for planting in poor dry sites. Common in old fields as a pioneer after grasses on hills of the Piedmont, growing rapidly and forming thickets. Later this pine is replaced by taller, more valuable hardwoods.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 55 feet tall, often shorter.
Fruit: Reddish brown
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Brown
Bloom Time: Apr
Bloom Notes: Flowers inconspicuous. Pollen cones reddish brown to yellow.
DistributionUSA: AL , DC , DE , GA , IN , KY , MD , MO , MS , NC , NJ , NY , OH , PA , SC , TN , VA , WV
Native Distribution: Long Island to PA & s. IN, s. to GA & n.e. MS
Native Habitat: Areas of poor, light soil in mountains and old fields
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Moist
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Poor, well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: The species is valuable as cover for dry, barren sites. It dislikes shallow, chalky soils and is not tolerant of over-topping by other trees.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Seeds are an important wildlife food.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
Eastern Pine Elfin |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Propagate by seed.
Seed Treatment: Pretreatment is usually not necessary, but germination of pine seeds exhibiting dormancy can be hastened by cold stratification.
Commercially Avail: yes
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Georgia Native Plant Society - Atlanta, GA
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Pinus virginiana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus virginiana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus virginiana
MetadataRecord Modified: 2022-10-07
Research By: TWC Staff