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Search for native plants by scientific name, common name or family. If you are not sure what you are looking for, try the Combination Search or our Recommended Species lists.

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Pinus resinosa (Red pine)
Makin, Julie

Pinus resinosa

Pinus resinosa Aiton

Red Pine, Norway Pine, Canadian Pine

Pinaceae (Pine Family)


USDA Symbol: pire

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)

A common, large tree with small cones and broad, irregular or rounded crown of spreading branches, 1 row added a year. Red pine, a symmetrically oval, canopy tree, usually grows 50-75 ft. but can reach 125 ft. or more. The long, straight trunk is covered with reddish-brown, scaly bark. Tufted, dark-green needles, occurring in clusters of two, are 2-5 in. long.

The misleading alternate name "Norway Pine" for this New World species may be traced to confusion with Norway Spruce by early English explorers. Another explanation is that the name comes from the tree's occurrence near Norway, Maine, founded in 1797. Because the name was in usage before this time, the former explanation is more likely. Red Pine is an ornamental and shade tree; the wood is used for general construction, planing-mill products, millwork, and pulpwood.


From the Image Gallery

4 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 125 feet tall.
Leaf: Yellow-Green
Fruit: Brown

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Red , Brown
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May


USA: CT , IL , IN , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , NC , NH , NJ , NY , PA , RI , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: N.S. & c. Que. to e. Man., s. to n. NJ, PA & n.e. IA
Native Habitat: Sandy sites

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry , Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Sandy or gravelly, acid soils.


Use Wildlife: Attracts songbirds, upland game birds, mammals.
Use Other: Red pine is an important timber and pulp tee. The moderately hard wood readily absorbs preservatives, making it useful for structural beams, bridges, piles and railway ties. Kershaw
Attracts: Birds

Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)

Northern pine sphinx
(Lapara bombycoides)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA


Description: Seeds have no dormancy and will germinate immediately upon sowing.
Seed Treatment: Pretreatment is usually not necessary, but germination of pine seeds exhibiting dormancy can be hastened by cold stratification.
Commercially Avail: yes

National Wetland Indicator Status

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.


Bibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Additional resources

USDA: Find Pinus resinosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus resinosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus resinosa


Record Modified: 2013-06-27
Research By: TWC Staff

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