Host an Event Volunteer Join Tickets

Support the plant database you love!


Plant Database

Search for native plants by scientific name, common name or family. If you are not sure what you are looking for, try the Combination Search or our Recommended Species lists.

Enter a Plant Name:
Or you can choose a plant family:

Pinus jeffreyi

Pinus jeffreyi Balf.

Jeffrey Pine

Pinaceae (Pine Family)

Synonym(s): Pinus ponderosa ssp. jeffreyi

USDA Symbol: pije

USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

Jeffery pine has blue-green, twisted needles, 7-9 in. long. Grows from 40-90 ft., sometimes much taller, with a pyramidal, open crown. Old trees are devoid of branches for more than 1/2 of their height. Cinnamon-brown to yellow-orange, flaky bark. Cones are 6-9 in. long. Large tree with straight axis and open, conical crown of spreading branches and with large cones. Both bark and twigs give off odor of lemon or vanilla when crushed.

The odor of crushed twigs defies exact description. The scent has been likened not only to lemons and vanilla, but also to violets, pineapples, and apples. This species was named for its discoverer, John Jeffrey, the 19th century Scottish botanical explorer who collected seeds and plants in Oregon and California for introduction into Scotland.


From the Image Gallery

No images of this plant

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 200 feet tall.
Leaf: Dark Green

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Brown
Bloom Time: Apr , May


Native Distribution: Mts. of s.w. OR, e. CA, w. NV & n. Mex.
Native Habitat: Dry slopes from 6000-9000 ft.

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Well-drained, rocky soils.
Conditions Comments: Can endure climatic extremes. Needs to be planted in a grove with other pines or oaks.


Description: Sow fresh, untreated seed in late fall.
Seed Collection: Collect cones from vigorous trees in late summer and fall just before they completely open to drop seeds. Spread cones on racks to dry so they will release seeds. Cones may be shaken to release seeds. Store at a moisture content of 5-10 % fresh weight.
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Santa Barbara Botanic Garden - Santa Barbara, CA
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR

Web Reference

Webref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Additional resources

USDA: Find Pinus jeffreyi in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus jeffreyi in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus jeffreyi


Record Modified: 2022-09-21
Research By: TWC Staff

Go back