Viola novae-angliae House
New England Blue Violet
Violaceae (Violet Family)
Synonym(s): Viola septentrionalis var. grisea, Viola sororia var. novae-angliae
USDA Symbol: VINO
"Acaulescent, from slender, ascencding rootstocks: earliest leaves ovate or triangular-ovate, cordate, crenate, rounded or obtuse at the apex, 1-2 cm. long, on petio!es 2-4 cm. long; later leaf-blades thin in texture, triangular-lanceolate, 4-6 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 cm. broad at the base, tapering to an acute apex, the base subtruncate to cordate, margin crenate-dentate at the base, obscurely and distantly crenate toward the apex; dark green and nearly glabrous above, paler and more or less pubescent beneath, especially on the veins; petioles 7-15 cm. long, pubescent with white floccose hairs or glabrate in age: flowering scapes 6-10 cm. long, not surpassing the leaves, bibracteolate below the middle, bractlets ovate with subulate tips 1 mm. long: sepals oblong-lanceolate, 7-8 mm. long, glabrous, obtuse, 3-nerved, the basal auricle less than 1 mm. long, rounded or truncate: petals narrowly oblong, 12-15 mm. long, deep purple-blue, spreading, the lateral and lower ones densely villous with white hairs, the lower one veined with dark purple: cleistogamous flowers short-sagittate and blunt, 3- 4 mm. long on short horizontal peduncles, 15-25 mm. long, their capsules subglobose, about 6 mm. long, or less." Reslit:2848.
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Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Root Type: Fibrous
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Cordate , Ovate
Leaf Margin: Crenate , Dentate
Leaf Apex: Acute , Obtuse
Leaf Base: Cordate
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: To about 6 inches in height.
Leaf: Dark green, nearly glabrous above. Lighter green, pubescent below.
Flower: Bears chasmogamous and cleistogamous flowers.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Red , Blue , Purple , Violet
Bloom Time: Apr , May , Jun
Bloom Notes: Chasmogamous flower "petals light to dark blue- or dark purple-violet or reddish purple, lowest and sometimes lateral 2 purple-veined, lateral 2 bearded, lowest bearded or beardless, 15-25 mm, spur same color as petals, gibbous, 2-3 mm; style beardless; cleistogamous flowers on prostrate or ascending peduncles." Webref:3.
DistributionUSA: ME , MI , MN , NH , NY , VT , WI
Canada: MB , NB , ON , QC
Native Habitat: "Gravelly, wet, rocky shores of lakes and streams, meadows; 0-100m." Webref:3. "River shores, mainly on ledges and outcrops, less frequently on sand and gravel." Bibref: 1501.
National Wetland Indicator Status
BibliographyBibref 1501 - New England Wild Flower Society's Flora Novae Angliae: A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England (2011) Haines, A.
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Web ReferenceWebref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Research LiteratureReslit 2848 - A NEW VIOLET FROM NEW ENGLAND (1904) Homer D. House
This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Viola novae-angliae in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Viola novae-angliae in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Viola novae-angliae
MetadataRecord Modified: 2019-04-09
Research By: JAM