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Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt.
Celandine Poppy, Yellow Wood Poppy
Papaveraceae (Poppy Family)
USDA Symbol: STDI3
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
This 12-20 in. perennial with gray-green, lobed and toothed leaves is known for its large, poppy-like, yellow flowers. The stalks are leafy and the flowers are produced in small clusters, atop a stem bearing a pair of deeply lobed leaves; other leaves basal. Plant has yellow sap.
This is a fine species to grow in Eastern wildflower gardens, far less aggressive than the introduced European species. The species name, Greek for "two-leaved," refers to the pair of opposite leaves below the flower. Occurs in nature from western Pennsylvania north to Wisconsin and Michigan, south to Arkansas, Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia, with isolated populations in northern Alabama and southern Ontario. Because its range is so limited in that province, it is listed as a Species Endangered by Canada's SARA (Species at Risk Act) and by COSEWIC (Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada).
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: Up to about 20 inches tall.
Flower: Flowers 1 to 2 inches across.
Fruit: 1 inch.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Orange , Yellow
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
Bloom Notes: Usually yellow, sometimes orangish.
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , DC , DE , GA , IL , IN , KY , MD , MI , MO , OH , PA , TN , VA , WV
Native Distribution: W. PA (possibly) n. to WI and MI, s. to s.w. VA, TN, & AR, with isolated populations in southern Ontario and northern AL. Somewhat uncommon, with spotty distribution
Native Habitat: Rich, deciduous woods; calcareous bluffs
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Drought Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Rich, acidic, well-drained soils. Tolerates lime.
Conditions Comments: Requires moisture throughout summer, leaves will wither and turn yellow during drought.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Lends brilliant yellow to orange color to shady eastern woods and gardens.
Use Wildlife: Chipmunks feed on seeds.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
PropagationPropagation Material: Root Division , Seeds
Description: Propagate by seed or division. Divide large rhizomes with many eyes, leaving two eyes in each division. Growth may be quite slow. Seeds must be sown as soon as they ripen.
Seed Collection: The dry fruit is rough, hairy and spindle-shaped. Seed must not be allowed to dry out.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: May want to protect seeds from chipmunks. Readily self sows.
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 928 - 100 easy-to-grow native plants for Canadian gardens (2005) Johnson, L.; A. Leyerle
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 1294 - The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Stylophorum diphyllum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Stylophorum diphyllum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Stylophorum diphyllum
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-02-28
Research By: TWC Staff