Solidago rugosa Mill.
Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod, Wrinkle-leaf Goldenrod, Rough-leaved Goldenrod, Roughleaf Goldenrod, Rough-stemmed Goldenrod, Roughstem Goldenrod
Asteraceae (Aster Family)
USDA Symbol: SORU2
Thin sprays of arching flowering stems occur at the top of sturdy, erect, 2-6 ft. stems. The numerous, narrow, toothed leaves are rough-surfaced.Tall, rough, hairy stem bears divergent, or arching, branches with small, light yellow flower heads concentrated on the upper side. The plant occurs in clumps.
This highly variable goldenrod can form large masses in fields that were once cultivated. Physicians in ancient times believed that goldenrod had healing powers; in recent times these plants have been popularly blamed for causing hay fever, but the irritating symptoms often attributed to it, are actually caused by ragweed (Ambrosia spp.), which produces the afflicting pollen in abundance when goldenrod is in flower.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Size Notes: Up to about 6 feet tall.
Fruit: Fruit is a cypsela (pl. cypselae). Though technically incorrect, the fruit is often referred to as an achene.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IL , IN , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MO , MS , NC , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: Nf. to GA, w. to MI, MO & TX
Native Habitat: Low woods; meadows; old fields; pine barrens; bogs
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Most well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: This is a variable species and is divided into two subspecies, the typical one subdivided into three varieties.
BenefitUse Medicinal: Physicians in ancient times believe that goldenrod had healing powers; in recent times these plants have been popularly blamed for causing hay fever, but its irritating symptoms are actually caused by ragweed, whose pollen is abundant where goldenrod is in flower. (Niering)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
Special Value to Honey Bees
Supports Conservation Biological Control
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
PropagationDescription: If seeds are sown fresh, plant outdoors. Germination is often poor so sow thickly. Stem tip cuttings can be taken in May or June. Division of the basal rosettes, usually in late winter, offers the easiest method of increase. Mature plants can yield 30
Seed Collection: In October, examine a tuft of nutlets. If they are off-white or gray, they need more time. Mature seeds are white. Most seeds are flat and not viable. Viable seeds are thicker. Seeds remain in the heads for several weeks past the first frost. Store dry in sealed, refrigerated containers.
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
BibliographyBibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Solidago rugosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Solidago rugosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Solidago rugosa
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-01-16
Research By: TWC Staff