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Solidago rugosa (Wrinkleleaf goldenrod)
Bransford, W.D. and Dolphia

Solidago rugosa

Solidago rugosa Mill.

Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod, Wrinkle-leaf Goldenrod, Rough-leaved Goldenrod, Roughleaf Goldenrod, Rough-stemmed Goldenrod, Roughstem Goldenrod

Asteraceae (Aster Family)


USDA Symbol: SORU2

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N), SPM (N)

Thin sprays of arching flowering stems occur at the top of sturdy, erect, 2-6 ft. stems. The numerous, narrow, toothed leaves are rough-surfaced.Tall, rough, hairy stem bears divergent, or arching, branches with small, light yellow flower heads concentrated on the upper side. The plant occurs in clumps.

This highly variable goldenrod can form large masses in fields that were once cultivated. Physicians in ancient times believed that goldenrod had healing powers; in recent times these plants have been popularly blamed for causing hay fever, but the irritating symptoms often attributed to it, are actually caused by ragweed (Ambrosia spp.), which produces the afflicting pollen in abundance when goldenrod is in flower.


From the Image Gallery

24 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Size Notes: Up to about 6 feet tall.
Leaf: Green
Fruit: Fruit is a cypsela (pl. cypselae). Though technically incorrect, the fruit is often referred to as an achene.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov


USA: AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IL , IN , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MO , MS , NC , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: Nf. to GA, w. to MI, MO & TX
Native Habitat: Low woods; meadows; old fields; pine barrens; bogs

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Most well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: This is a variable species and is divided into two subspecies, the typical one subdivided into three varieties.


Use Medicinal: Physicians in ancient times believe that goldenrod had healing powers; in recent times these plants have been popularly blamed for causing hay fever, but its irritating symptoms are actually caused by ragweed, whose pollen is abundant where goldenrod is in flower. (Niering)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Attracts: Birds

Value to Beneficial Insects

Special Value to Native Bees
Special Value to Honey Bees
Supports Conservation Biological Control

This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.


Description: If seeds are sown fresh, plant outdoors. Germination is often poor so sow thickly. Stem tip cuttings can be taken in May or June. Division of the basal rosettes, usually in late winter, offers the easiest method of increase. Mature plants can yield 30
Seed Collection: In October, examine a tuft of nutlets. If they are off-white or gray, they need more time. Mature seeds are white. Most seeds are flat and not viable. Viable seeds are thicker. Seeds remain in the heads for several weeks past the first frost. Store dry in sealed, refrigerated containers.
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

National Wetland Indicator Status

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS


Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter

Additional resources

USDA: Find Solidago rugosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Solidago rugosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Solidago rugosa


Record Modified: 2023-01-16
Research By: TWC Staff

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