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Quercus incana W. Bartram
Bluejack Oak, Sandjack Oak, Upland Willow Oak, Cinnamon Oak, Shin Oak, Turkey Oak
Fagaceae (Beech Family)
Synonym(s): Quercus cinerea
USDA Symbol: QUIN
USDA Native Status: L48 (N)
Thicket-forming shrub or small tree with an irregular crown of stout, crooked branches and distinctive, blue-green foliage. A shrub or small tree that grows up to 55 feet (16.8 m), with irregular spreading open crown, often forming thickets. BARK: thick dark gray to black, wide furrows forming rough square plates. TWIGS and BUDS: brown twigs, densely pubescent when young; reddish-brown buds, narrowly ovoid and 5-angled in cross-section, often with hairs at apex. LEAVES: short, pubescent petiole less than 3⁄8 inch (10 mm) long; leaf is narrowly ovate to elliptical, 1 1⁄8 - 4 inches (29 - 101 mm) long 1⁄2 - 1 3⁄8 inches (13 - 35 mm) wide, base acute to rounded, apex acute with a bristle-tip, margin is entire (juvenile foliage may have 2 - 3 shallow lobes), thick and leathery, upper surface shiny bluish- green with raised veins and sparsely pubescent along midrib, pubescence beneath with axillary ￼tufts of hair.
Easily recognized by the distinctive deciduous leaves. The common name refers to the shiny blue-green foliage, while the Latin species name, meaning "hoary," describes the gray-green undersurface. The largest known specimen grows in Pasco County, Florida.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub , Tree
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Elliptic , Ovate
Leaf Venation: Pinnate
Leaf Margin: Entire
Leaf Apex: Acute
Leaf Base: Rounded
Leaf Texture: Leathery
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Nut
Size Notes: Grows up to 55 feet tall.
Leaf: Upper surface shiny bluish- green.
Fruit: Acorns biennial; 1 - 2 nuts sessile or on peduncle of less than 1⁄4 inch (6 mm); cup with pale pubescent reddish- brown scales, inner surface pubescent, cup usually bowl shaped, covering up to 1⁄2 of nut; oval, brown nut with faint stripes, 3⁄8 - 5⁄8 inches (10 - 16 mm) long.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Red , Yellow , Green
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , FL , GA , LA , MS , NC , OK , SC , TX , VA
Native Distribution: SE. Virginia to central Florida, west to E. and central Texas, and north to SE. Oklahoma; to 500' (152 m).
Native Habitat: Well-drained sandy soils of barrens and ridges. Shaded woods.
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Sandy Sandy Loam
BenefitUse Ornamental: Attractive landscape plant.
Use Wildlife: Bluejack oak acorns provide food for birds, squirrels, raccoons, and deer.
Interesting Foliage: yes
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Austin, TX
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 766 - Dale Groom's Texas Gardening Guide (2002) Groom, D.
Bibref 1134 - Field Guide to Native Oak Species of Eastern North America (2003) Stein, John D. and Denise Binion
Bibref 298 - Field Guide to Texas Trees (1999) Simpson, B.J.
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
Bibref 297 - Trees of Central Texas (1984) Vines, Robert A.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Quercus incana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Quercus incana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Quercus incana
MetadataRecord Modified: 2015-11-06
Research By: TWC Staff