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Orontium aquaticum (Goldenclub)
Vick, Albert F. W.

Orontium aquaticum

Orontium aquaticum L.

Goldenclub, Neverwet

Araceae (Arum Family)



USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

An aquatic with long-stalked leaves, and a golden yellow, club-like spadix. Goldenclub has simple, long-petioled, often floating, dark-green, velvety, basal leaves. The club-shaped golden-yellow spadix is lax or ascending on a green scape and emerges 1/2-1 1/2 ft. above the water. The flower is followed by green fruits.

This emergent perennial is of striking beauty, especially when seen against the backdrop of dark open waters in southern swamps. Its Latin generic name derives from a plant that grows in the Orontes River of Syria.


From the Image Gallery

8 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Fruit Type: Berry
Size Notes: Up to about 18 inches tall.
Fruit: Green

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar , Apr


USA: AL , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , KY , LA , MA , MD , MS , NC , NJ , NY , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
Native Distribution: MA to KY, s. to FL & LA, occasional in southeast TX; mostly on the Coastal Plain
Native Habitat: Swamps; shallow water pools & streams

Growing Conditions

Water Use: High
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Drought Tolerance: Low
Aquatic: yes
Soil Description: Acid, loamy soil under shallow, moving water.
Conditions Comments: Found in shallow, flowing water from 1 to 10 inches in depth. To insure adequate conditions in a water garden, install a recirculation pump.


Propagation Material: Root Division , Seeds
Description: Sow cleaned seeds immediately in wet, mucky soil.
Seed Collection: Collect the large, gummy seeds in mid-summer.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Make sure water continues moving or the plant will suffer. It requires flowing water.

National Wetland Indicator Status

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE


Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter

Additional resources

USDA: Find Orontium aquaticum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Orontium aquaticum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Orontium aquaticum


Record Modified: 2023-02-21
Research By: TWC Staff

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