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Orontium aquaticum L.
Araceae (Arum Family)
USDA Symbol: ORAQ
USDA Native Status: L48 (N)
An aquatic with long-stalked leaves, and a golden yellow, club-like spadix. Goldenclub has simple, long-petioled, often floating, dark-green, velvety, basal leaves. The club-shaped golden-yellow spadix is lax or ascending on a green scape and emerges 1/2-1 1/2 ft. above the water. The flower is followed by green fruits.
This emergent perennial is of striking beauty, especially when seen against the backdrop of dark open waters in southern swamps. Its Latin generic name derives from a plant that grows in the Orontes River of Syria.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Fruit Type: Berry
Size Notes: Up to about 18 inches tall.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar , Apr
DistributionUSA: AL , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , KY , LA , MA , MD , MS , NC , NJ , NY , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
Native Distribution: MA to KY, s. to FL & LA, occasional in southeast TX; mostly on the Coastal Plain
Native Habitat: Swamps; shallow water pools & streams
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Drought Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Acid, loamy soil under shallow, moving water.
Conditions Comments: Found in shallow, flowing water from 1 to 10 inches in depth. To insure adequate conditions in a water garden, install a recirculation pump.
PropagationPropagation Material: Root Division , Seeds
Description: Sow cleaned seeds immediately in wet, mucky soil.
Seed Collection: Collect the large, gummy seeds in mid-summer.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Make sure water continues moving or the plant will suffer. It requires flowing water.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Orontium aquaticum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Orontium aquaticum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Orontium aquaticum
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-02-21
Research By: TWC Staff