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Carya texana (Black hickory)
Loveless, Brenda K.

Carya texana

Carya texana Buckley

Black Hickory, Buckley Hickory, Pignut Hickory

Juglandaceae (Walnut Family)

Synonym(s): Carya buckleyi, Carya buckleyi var. arkansana, Carya glabra var. villosa, Carya texana var. arkansana, Carya texana var. villosa, Hicoria arkansana, Hicoria texana, Hicoria villosa

USDA Symbol: CATE9

USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

A small to large tree, depending on habitat. Leaves alternate, pinnately compound, 5-7 leaflets; leaf-scar heart-shaped; bud small, brown, symmetrical; nut slightly four-winged; 2.5-3 cm in diameter.


From the Image Gallery

3 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Complexity: Pinnate
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Nut
Size Notes: Up to about 140 feet tall in rich moist bottomlands. Up to about 30 feet tall in shallow, rocky soils.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Red
Bloom Time: Mar


USA: AL , AR , GA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MO , MS , OK , TN , TX
Native Distribution: S.w. IN, c. IL, MO & s.e. KS, s. to c. OK, Edwards Plateau, s. TX & LA
Native Habitat: Rocky, upland forests; well-drained slopes

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Variable. Rocky, Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay.
Conditions Comments: One of the most adaptable of all hickories but prefers thinner, well-drained areas. Difficult to transplant because of a large taproot.


Use Ornamental: Shade tree, Fall conspicuous
Use Wildlife: Substrate-insectivorous birds, Cover, Nesting site, Fruit-birds. Starvation browse for deer; nuts eaten.
Attracts: Butterflies
Larval Host: Serves as a primary host for some magnificent moths, including the luna, funeral dagger, and giant regal. Banded hairstreak.

Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)

Banded Hairstreak
(Satyrium calanus)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA


Propagation Material: Seeds
Description: Most easily grown from fresh seed sown immediately after collection or stratified and sown in spring. Increase by hardwood cuttings is usually successful.
Seed Collection: Collect nuts from September to November. Husks usually dry and split open by themselves when the nuts are mature. Persistent husks can be removed with a corn sheller.
Seed Treatment: Embyro dormancy can be overcome by moist stratification at 33-40 degrees for 30-150 days. Older seeds require less stratification.
Commercially Avail: yes

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Stengl Biological Research Station - Smithville, TX
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Austin, TX
Texas Master Naturalists - Lost Pines Chapter - Bastrop, TX


Bibref 298 - Field Guide to Texas Trees (1999) Simpson, B.J.
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
Bibref 297 - Trees of Central Texas (1984) Vines, Robert A.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Additional resources

USDA: Find Carya texana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Carya texana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Carya texana


Record Modified: 2022-09-20
Research By: DEW

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