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Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fernald
Common Serviceberry, Downy Serviceberry, Shadbush, Juneberry, Junebush, Shadblow, Sarvis
Rosaceae (Rose Family)
USDA Symbol: AMAR3
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
This Amelanchier species is a tall shrub or small tree, usually 15-25 ft., sometimes growing as tall as 30 ft. Its white flowers occur in drooping racemes, appearing before the leaves. Young leaves are covered with soft, woolly hairs that disappear as the leaf matures. The plantís ornamental bark is gray and smooth but streaked with longitudinal fissures; often with a reddish cast. Old bark is scaly. Small, edible berries are reddish-purple. The deciduous leaves of downy service-berry may turn wine-red in fall.
The names "Shadbush" and "Shadblow" allude to the fact that the showy masses of white flowers tend to occur at the same time that shad ascend the rivers in early spring to spawn. An older name is "Sarvis." Sometimes planted as an ornamental for the showy clusters of flowers. This is the plant that is commonly sold in the nursery trade as Amelanchier canadensis. The latter is in fact a shrubby East Coast species.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Lanceolate , Oval
Leaf Margin: Denticulate
Leaf Base: Cordate
Size Notes: Up to about 30 feet tall.
Leaf: Alternate, simple, oval to broadly lanceolate, pointed at the tip, often slightly heart-shaped at the base, finely toothed along the edges, pale and often hairy on the lower surface, up to 4 inches long, up to 2 inches wide.
Autumn Foliage: yes
Flower: Several in drooping clusters, sometimes blooming before the leaves appear.
Fruit: Berry-like, spherical, red to purple, sweet.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White
Bloom Time: Apr , May
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , QC
Native Distribution: N.B. to FL, w. to e. MN, e. NE & n.e. TX
Native Habitat: Open, rocky woods & slopes; wood borders; stream banks
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Moist, well-drained, acid soils.
Conditions Comments: Serviceberries are subject to many of disease and insect problems. Damage from these problems is usually cosmetic rather than life threatening. This species is most effective in naturalistic plantings and along wood edges, ponds and streams. Rabbits destroy seedlings.
BenefitUse Wildlife: This is a preferred Amelanchier spp. for birds and other wildlife.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Fragrant Foliage: yes
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
PropagationDescription: Use treated softwood cuttings taken when growth extension has ceased, the end leaf is maturing, and the stem tissue is firming. Sow untreated seeds in fall or cold-stratified seed in spring.
Seed Collection: Collect fruits as soon as they ripen (if you can beat the birds) and clean seeds immediately to prevent fermentation. Fertile seeds are dark brown with a leathery seed coat. Seed extraction is usually by macerating the fruit and washing them over screens. Air dry and store in sealed, refrigerated containers for up to five years.
Seed Treatment: Cold-moist stratification for 90-120 days.
Commercially Avail: yes
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Natural Biodiversity - Johnstown, PA
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes (2002) Wasowski, Sally
Bibref 841 - Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants (2006) Burrell, C. C.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Amelanchier arborea in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Amelanchier arborea in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Amelanchier arborea
MetadataRecord Modified: 2013-12-14
Research By: TWC Staff