Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
Alnus incana (L.) Moench ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T. Clausen
Betulaceae (Birch Family)
Synonym(s): Alnus incana var. americana, Alnus rugosa, Alnus rugosa var. americana
USDA Symbol: ALINR
A low and clump-forming shrub; sometimes a small tree. The Latin subspecies name, meaning rugose or wrinkled, refers to the network of sunken veins prominent on the lower leaf surfaces.
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Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Venation: Pinnate
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Leaf: Dark Green
Size Class: 12-36 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Apr , May
DistributionUSA: CT , IA , IL , IN , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , ND , NH , NJ , NY , OH , PA , RI , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: Widespread across Canada from Yukon and British Columbia to Newfoundland, south to West Virginia, west to NE. Iowa, and north to NE. North Dakota; almost to northern limit of trees; in south to 2600 (792 m).
Native Habitat: Wet soil along streams and lakes, and in swamps.
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Conditions Comments: Nitrogen fixing using root nodules
BenefitUse Ornamental: Planted as an ornamental at water edges.
Use Wildlife: Alder thickets provide cover for wildlife, browse for deer and moose.
Use Medicinal: Bark was boiled to make medicinal teas for treating rheumatism. It was also applied to wounds as a poultice to reducing bleeding and swelling.
Use Other: Inuit people and settlers extracted a dark dye from the bark for tanning and staining hides.
Interesting Foliage: yes
Larval Host: Green Comma butterfly
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
Green Comma |
Learn more at BAMONA
BibliographyBibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 841 - Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants (2006) Burrell, C. C.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Alnus incana ssp. rugosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
MetadataRecord Modified: 2007-01-01
Research By: TWC Staff