Search for native plants by scientific name, common name or family. If you are not sure what you are looking for, try the Combination Search or our Recommended Species lists.
Viola canadensis L.
Canadian White Violet, Canada Violet
Violaceae (Violet Family)
USDA Symbol: vica4
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (N), CAN (N)
Canadian White Violet is a leafy-stemmed perennial, 8-16+ in. tall. The white flowers, sometimes tinged with purple, have yellow centers. Leaves are long-petioled, heart-shaped, and deep-green. Fragrant, white, bilaterally symmetrical flowers hang and face outward at tips of short, slender, purplish stalks that grow from axils of heart-shaped, fine-toothed leaves.
The flowers growing from axils of upper leaves, and the yellow petal bases, help distinguish this lovely Violet from other white-flowered species.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: Up to about 2 feet tall, often shorter.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Yellow , Purple , Violet
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
DistributionUSA: AK , AL , AR , AZ , CO , CT , GA , IA , ID , IL , IN , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MT , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NY , OH , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY
Canada: BC , MB , NB , NS , ON , QC , SK
Native Distribution: Que. & w. NH to s. AK, across n. U.S, and s. in mts.
Native Habitat: Moist, open wooded areas
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
Soil Description: Rich, moist soils.
BenefitUse Food: Edible flowers.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
PropagationDescription: Propagation is by seed or division of plants with off-shoots.
Seed Collection: Approximate collection date in northern U.S.: Late May to late Jul. Often reblooms for Sep. collection. Seeds are usually scarce.
Commercially Avail: yes
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Michigan native plants for shady, low traffic area
May 10, 2006
Hello, I am looking for a recommendation for a Michigan native groundcover. I live adjacent to the Rouge River watershed and want to buy the right thing. The location is shady, infrequently walked ...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Research LiteratureReslit 2869 - Segregates of Viola canadensis (1902) Edward L. Greene
This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
Search More Titles in Research Literature
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Viola canadensis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Viola canadensis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Viola canadensis
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-01-03
Research By: TWC Staff