Viola canadensis L.
Canadian White Violet, Canada Violet
Violaceae (Violet Family)
USDA Symbol: VICA4
Canadian White Violet is a leafy-stemmed perennial, 8-16+ in. tall. The white flowers, sometimes tinged with purple, have yellow centers. Leaves are long-petioled, heart-shaped, and deep-green. Fragrant, white, bilaterally symmetrical flowers hang and face outward at tips of short, slender, purplish stalks that grow from axils of heart-shaped, fine-toothed leaves.
The flowers growing from axils of upper leaves, and the yellow petal bases, help distinguish this lovely Violet from other white-flowered species.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: Up to about 2 feet tall, often shorter.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Yellow , Purple , Violet
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
DistributionUSA: AK , AL , AR , AZ , CO , CT , GA , IA , ID , IL , IN , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MT , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NY , OH , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY
Canada: BC , MB , NB , NS , ON , QC , SK
Native Distribution: Que. & w. NH to s. AK, across n. U.S, and s. in mts.
Native Habitat: Moist, open wooded areas
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
Soil Description: Rich, moist soils.
BenefitUse Food: Edible flowers.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
PropagationDescription: Propagation is by seed or division of plants with off-shoots.
Seed Collection: Approximate collection date in northern U.S.: Late May to late Jul. Often reblooms for Sep. collection. Seeds are usually scarce.
Commercially Avail: yes
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Michigan native plants for shady, low traffic area
May 10, 2006
Hello, I am looking for a recommendation for a Michigan native groundcover. I live adjacent to the Rouge River watershed and want to buy the right thing. The location is shady, infrequently walked ...
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National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Research LiteratureReslit 2869 - Segregates of Viola canadensis (1902) Edward L. Greene
This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Viola canadensis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Viola canadensis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Viola canadensis
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-01-03
Research By: TWC Staff