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Trillium delicatum (Ocmulgee trillium)
Smith, R.W.

Trillium delicatum

Trillium delicatum A. Floden & E. E. Schill.

Ocmulgee Trillium

Liliaceae (Lily Family)

Synonym(s):

USDA Symbol: TRDE11

USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

"Rhizomes slender, ca. 1 cm diam, generally branching from side or ends. Scapes 58 cm tall, purple at base, green distally, slightly hexagonal distally, densely puberulent on angles with short 0.250.5 mm long trichomes, exserted from ground at angle with leaves held just on leaf litter, appearing prostrate from a distance. Leaves [bracts] ovate, broadest near base (in lower third), apex obtuse, 3.55 cm long 24 cm broad, mottled heavily in 3 or more shades of green, abaxially strongly 3-veined with trichomes along the proximal portion of the leaf. Flower solitary, sessile, with strong odor of animal dung. Sepals elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate, sulcate, 12 cm long, 0.50.75 cm wide, reddish proximally, green distally. Petals oblanceolate, 2.42.9 0.71.1 cm, dark purple-maroon, undulate distally and acuminate, twisted at apex. Stamens 11.2 cm long, filaments 0.50.7 cm long, anther sacs 0.40.5 cm long, introrse, connectives extending ca. 2 mm past anther sacs, purple, incurved. Ovary depressed globose, 6-lobed, purple, ca. 0.40.5 cm tall (shorter than staminal filaments), stigmatic lobes ca. 11.5 mm, curved strongly outward. Fruit a fleshy, irregularly dehiscent capsule, weakly six-angled, greenish white, purplish at the apex, subglobose, ca. 1213 mm in diam. Seeds not observed." (Reslit: 3177).

Endemic to Georgia.

 

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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb
Leaf Arrangement: Whorled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Obovate
Leaf Margin: Entire
Leaf Apex: Obtuse
Breeding System: Flowers Bisexual
Fruit Type: Berry , Capsule
Size Notes: "Scapes 5-8 cm tall." (Reslit: 3177).
Leaf: "Leaves [bracts] ovate, broadest near base (in lower third), apex obtuse, 3.5-5 cm long 3 2-4 cm broad, mottled heavily in 3 or more shades of green, abaxially strongly 3-veined with trichomes along the proximal portion of the leaf." (Reslit: 3177).
Flower: "Flower solitary, sessile, with strong odor of animal dung. Sepals elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate, sulcate, 1-2 cm long, 0.5-0.75 cm wide, reddish proximally, green distally. Petals oblanceolate, 2.4-2.9 3 0.7-1.1 cm, dark purple-maroon, undulate distally and acuminate, twisted at apex. Stamens 1-1.2 cm long, filaments 0.5-0.7 cm long, anther sacs 0.4-0.5 cm long, introrse, connectives extending ca. 2 mm past anther sacs, purple, incurved. Ovary depressed globose, 6-lobed, purple, ca. 0.4-0.5 cm tall (shorter than staminal filaments), stigmatic lobes ca. 1-1.5 mm, curved strongly outward." (Reslit: 3177).
Fruit: "Fruit a fleshy, irregularly dehiscent capsule, weakly sixangled, greenish white, purplish at the apex, subglobose, ca. 12-13 mm in diam. Seeds not observed." (Reslit: 3177). Many authorities describe Trillium fruit as berry-like.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Purple
Bloom Time: Apr
Bloom Notes: "Flower solitary, sessile, with strong odor of animal dung. Sepals elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate, sulcate, 12 cm long, 0.50.75 cm wide, reddish proximally, green distally. Petals oblanceolate, 2.42.9 0.71.1 cm, dark purple-maroon, undulate distally and acuminate, twisted at apex. Stamens 11.2 cm long, filaments 0.50.7 cm long, anther sacs 0.40.5 cm long, introrse, connectives extending ca. 2 mm past anther sacs, purple, incurved. Ovary depressed globose, 6-lobed, purple, ca. 0.40.5 cm tall (shorter than staminal filaments), stigmatic lobes ca. 11.5 mm, curved strongly outward." (Reslit: 3177).

Distribution

USA: GA
Native Distribution: Endemic to Georgia. Known from four scattered populations in Houston, Bleckley, and Greene counties, Georgia, in the Ocmulgee and Oconee River drainages." (Reslit: 3177).
Native Habitat: "Mesic-wet floodplain forests." (Reslit: 3177).

Growing Conditions

Light Requirement: Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
Drought Tolerance: Low

Benefit

Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes

Web Reference

Webref 28 - NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life (2018) NatureServe
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter

Research Literature

Reslit 3177 - A New Species of Trillium (Melanthiaceae) from Central Georgia and its Phylogenetic Position in subgenus Sessilium (2019) Schilling, Edward E., Aaron Floden, Jayne Lampley,...

This information was provided by the Florida WIldflower Foundation.
Search More Titles in Research Literature

Additional resources

USDA: Find Trillium delicatum in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Trillium delicatum in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Trillium delicatum

Metadata

Record Modified: 2023-04-12
Research By: Joseph A. Marcus

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