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Betula pumila (Bog birch)
Smith, R.W.

Betula pumila

Betula pumila L.

Bog Birch

Betulaceae (Birch Family)


USDA Symbol: BEPU4

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N), SPM (N)


From the Image Gallery

2 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Obovate , Ovate
Leaf Venation: Pinnate
Leaf Margin: Dentate
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Samara
Size Notes: Shrub to about 12 feet tall.
Leaf: Dark Green.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow , Green , Brown
Bloom Time: May
Bloom Notes: Male and female flowers born separately but on the same plant, the male in drooping clusters, the female in erect clusters up to 1 inch long.


USA: CA , CO , CT , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , MA , ME , MI , MN , MT , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OR , SD , VT , WA , WI , WY
Canada: AB , MB , NB , NL , NS , ON , PE , QC , SK
Native Habitat: Riparian,Swamp/Marsh,Bog/Fen

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low


Use Medicinal: The Ojibwa used Betula pumila medicinally as a gynecological aid and as a respiratory aid (D. E. Moerman 1986).
Conspicuous Flowers: yes

National Wetland Indicator Status

This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

Web Reference

Webref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Additional resources

USDA: Find Betula pumila in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Betula pumila in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Betula pumila


Record Modified: 2022-10-17
Research By: TWC Staff

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