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Rudbeckia hirta L.
Black-eyed Susan, Common black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan
USDA Symbol: ruhi2
This cheerful, widespread wildflower is considered an annual to a short-lived perennial across its range. Bright-yellow, 2-3 in. wide, daisy-like flowers with dark centers are its claim-to-fame. They occur singly atop 1-2 ft. stems. The stems and scattered, oval leaves are covered with bristly hairs. Coarse, rough-stemmed plant with daisy-like flower heads made up of showy golden-yellow ray flowers, with disk flowers forming a brown central cone.
This native prairie biennial forms a rosette of leaves the first year, followed by flowers the second year. It is covered with hairs that give it a slightly rough texture. The Green-headed Coneflower (R. laciniata) has yellow ray flowers pointing downward, a greenish-yellow disk, and irregularly divided leaves.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Annual Habit: Herb Size Notes:
Fruit: Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
, WY Canada: AB
, SK Native Distribution:
to Man. & WY,
s. to FL
& NM; widely naturalized elsewhere Native Habitat:
Prairie, Plains, Meadows, Pastures, Savannahs, Woodlands edge, Opening
Growing ConditionsWater Use:
Medium Light Requirement:
Sun , Part Shade , Shade Soil Moisture:
Dry , Moist Soil pH:
Acidic (pH<6.8) CaCO3 Tolerance:
None Drought Tolerance:
High Soil Description:
Moist to dry, well-drained soils. Juglones tolerant Conditions Comments:
The cheerful blossoms of the Black-eyed Susans liven up bouquets. This annuals may bloom longer with some afternoon shade. Birds enjoy the ripe seeds. Black-eyed Susan can become aggressive if given too perfect
an environment and not enough competition.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Color, Showy, Blooms ornamental, Wildflower meadow, Pocket prairie
Use Wildlife: Nectar-Bees, Nectar-Butterflies, Nectar-insects, Seeds-Granivorous birds
Use Medicinal: Amerindians used root tea for worms, colds; external wash for sores, snakebites, swelling; root juice for earaches. (Foster & Duke)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Gorgone Checkerspot, Bordered Patch butterfly
Deer Resistant: High
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Propagates very easily from seed sown in fall or spring. Spring-sown seed should be stratified. Rake seed into a loose topsoil or cover with ¼ to ½ inch of soil or mulch. If possible, supplement with water if fall or spring rains are infrequent and light. The seed requires several days of moisture and should germinate in one to two weeks.
Seed Collection: The nutlets turn charcoal-gray at maturity, usually 3-4 weeks after the bloom period. Seeds are mature at this time, but they are easier to collect after cones lose their tight compact stucture. Store dry in sealed, refrigerated containers.
Seed Treatment: Stratify for 3 months at 40 degrees.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Black-eyed Susans are drought tolerant but respond well to an occasional watering. Additional irrigation in a dry year will improve the density of the stand and lengthen the flowering season. Do not mow until after the plants have formed mature seed cones, about three to four weeks after flowering. (Check by breaking a cone open and if the seeds are dark, they are mature.) The number of volunteer plants can be limited by removing the seed heads after the flowers are done.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Mr. Smarty Plants says
The most common wildflower in North America
January 16, 2008
Hi Mr. Smartyplants,
What the most common wildflower in North America? My friend thinks it's the oxeye daisy. Is this correct? I work for a puzzle publishing company, and am doing research for a the...
view the full question and answer
Native plants for shady small spaces in Houston, TX
June 18, 2006
What are the best plants and flowers to plant in small spaces in an urban area in Houston, Texas? I have several flower beds that are 3 foot wide and 10-12 foot long that get half day sun. The area...
view the full question and answer
Native, non-invasive plant seeds for each region in U.S.
June 09, 2006
I need to identify a wildflower from each region that we can package in custom packaging to use as giveaways at our member zoos and aquariums. Our project this year is called Conservation Made Simple...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
Fredericksburg Nature Center
- Fredericksburg, TXLady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
- Austin, TXNative Plant Center at Westchester Community College, The
- Valhalla, NYTexas Discovery Gardens
- Dallas, TXBrackenridge Field Laboratory
- Austin, TXUnited States Botanic Garden
- Washington, DCCrosby Arboretum
- Picayune, MSTexas Parks and Wildlife Department
- Austin, TXNPSOT - Fredericksburg Chapter
- Fredericksburg, TXNPSOT - Austin Chapter
- Austin, TXNative Seed Network
- Corvallis, ORJacob's Well Natural Area
- Wimberley, TXNPSOT - Williamson County Chapter
- Georgetown, TX, TX
Herbarium Specimen(s)NPSOT 0064
Collected May 19, 1990 in Bexar County by Lottie MillsapsNPSOT 0555
Collected Jun 26, 1988 in Bexar County by Harry CliffeNPSOT 0010
Collected April 25, 1990 in Bexar County by Judith C. BerryNPSOT 0400
Collected Jun 1, 1993 in Comal County by Mary Beth White
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-8
Collected 2006-05-24 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
* Available Online from Wildflower Center Store
Bibref 417 - Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America
(2000) Foster, S. & J. A. Duke
Bibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America
(2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides)
(1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition)
(2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes
(2002) Wasowski, Sally
Bibref 355 - Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest
(1991) Miller, G. O.
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region
(2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide
(1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife
(1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender* The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas
(2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country
(1989) Enquist, M.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter1985 VOL. 2, NO.1
- A Glorious Spring, Lupines in Landscapes, Director's Report, Notable Quote, Wild...Wildflower Newsletter1985 VOL. 2, NO.2
- Guide to Black-Eyed Susan, Parkways, Wildflowers for the East, Arboretum Mall to...Wildflower Newsletter1987 VOL. 4, NO.3
- Fall Planting Highlights the Season, Jubilee Celebration Commences December 1987...Wildflower Newsletter1987 VOL. 4, NO.4
- Wildflower Center Sows Seeds for the Country, Hotline for Texas, New Goals Plans...Wildflower Newsletter1990 VOL. 7, NO.5
- Naturalistic Landscaping Takes Careful Planning, Director\'s Report, Breaking th...Wildflower Newsletter1994 VOL. 11, NO.6
- Wildflower Center Featured Non-Profit in Neiman Marcus Christmas Book, Dana Leav...Wildflower Newsletter1995 VOL. 12, NO.2
- Wildflower Center Opens April 8th through 9th, Grand Opening Schedule of Events,...
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-11
Research By: TWC Staff