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Rudbeckia hirta (Black-eyed susan)
Page, Lee

Rudbeckia hirta

Rudbeckia hirta L.

Black-eyed Susan, Common black-eyed Susan, Brown-eyed Susan

Asteraceae (Aster Family)

Synonym(s):

USDA Symbol: RUHI2

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), CAN (N)

This cheerful, widespread wildflower is considered an annual to a short-lived perennial across its range. Bright-yellow, 2-3 in. wide, daisy-like flowers with dark centers are its claim-to-fame. They occur singly atop 1-2 ft. stems. The stems and scattered, oval leaves are covered with bristly hairs. Coarse, rough-stemmed plant with daisy-like flower heads made up of showy golden-yellow ray flowers, with disk flowers forming a brown central cone.

This native prairie biennial forms a rosette of leaves the first year, followed by flowers the second year. It is covered with hairs that give it a slightly rough texture. The Green-headed Coneflower (R. laciniata) has yellow ray flowers pointing downward, a greenish-yellow disk, and irregularly divided leaves.

 

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Annual
Habit: Herb
Size Notes: 1-2
Leaf: Green
Flower:
Fruit:
Size Class: 1-3 ft.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct

Distribution

USA: AL , AR , CA , CO , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , ID , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NM , NY , OH , OK , OR , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , UT , VA , VT , WA , WI , WV , WY
Canada: AB , BC , MB , NB , NS , ON , QC , SK
Native Distribution: W. MA to Man. & WY, s. to FL & NM; widely naturalized elsewhere
Native Habitat: Prairie, Plains, Meadows, Pastures, Savannahs, Woodlands edge, Opening

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry , Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Drought Tolerance: High
Soil Description: Moist to dry, well-drained soils. Juglones tolerant
Conditions Comments: The cheerful blossoms of the Black-eyed Susans liven up bouquets. This annuals may bloom longer with some afternoon shade. Birds enjoy the ripe seeds. Black-eyed Susan can become aggressive if given too perfect an environment and not enough competition.

Benefit

Use Ornamental: Color, Showy, Blooms ornamental, Wildflower meadow, Pocket prairie
Use Wildlife: Nectar-Bees, Nectar-Butterflies, Nectar-insects, Seeds-Granivorous birds
Use Medicinal: Amerindians used root tea for worms, colds; external wash for sores, snakebites, swelling; root juice for earaches. (Foster & Duke)
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Gorgone Checkerspot, Bordered Patch butterfly
Deer Resistant: High

Propagation

Propagation Material: Seeds
Description: Propagates very easily from seed sown in fall or spring. Spring-sown seed should be stratified. Rake seed into a loose topsoil or cover with to inch of soil or mulch. If possible, supplement with water if fall or spring rains are infrequent and light. The seed requires several days of moisture and should germinate in one to two weeks.
Seed Collection: The nutlets turn charcoal-gray at maturity, usually 3-4 weeks after the bloom period. Seeds are mature at this time, but they are easier to collect after cones lose their tight compact stucture. Store dry in sealed, refrigerated containers.
Seed Treatment: Stratify for 3 months at 40 degrees.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Black-eyed Susans are drought tolerant but respond well to an occasional watering. Additional irrigation in a dry year will improve the density of the stand and lengthen the flowering season. Do not mow until after the plants have formed mature seed cones, about three to four weeks after flowering. (Check by breaking a cone open and if the seeds are dark, they are mature.) The number of volunteer plants can be limited by removing the seed heads after the flowers are done.

Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)

Rudbeckia hirta is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Bordered Patch
(Chlosyne lacinia)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA
Gorgone Checkerspot
(Chlosyne gorgone)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA

Find Seed or Plants

Order seed of this species from Native American Seed and help support the Wildflower Center.

Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

Mr. Smarty Plants says

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Native plants for shady small spaces in Houston, TX
June 18, 2006
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Native, non-invasive plant seeds for each region in U.S.
June 09, 2006
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National Wetland Indicator Status

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU FACU
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Suppliers Directory

According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:

Sanibel-Captiva Conservation Foundation Native Plant Nursery - Sanibel, FL
Sunshine Farm & Gardens - Renick, WV
Ohio Prairie Nursery - Hiram, OH
American Native Nursery - Quakertown, PA
Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:

Fredericksburg Nature Center - Fredericksburg, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Austin, TX
Native Plant Center at Westchester Community College, The - Valhalla, NY
Texas Discovery Gardens - Dallas, TX
Brackenridge Field Laboratory - Austin, TX
United States Botanic Garden - Washington, DC
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Austin, TX
NPSOT - Fredericksburg Chapter - Fredericksburg, TX
NPSOT - Austin Chapter - Austin, TX
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
Jacob's Well Natural Area - Wimberley, TX
NPSOT - Williamson County Chapter - Georgetown, TX

Herbarium Specimen(s)

NPSOT 0555 Collected Jun 26, 1988 in Bexar County by Harry Cliffe
NPSOT 0400 Collected Jun 1, 1993 in Comal County by Mary Beth White
NPSOT 0010 Collected April 25, 1990 in Bexar County by Judith C. Berry
NPSOT 0064 Collected May 19, 1990 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps

Wildflower Center Seed Bank

LBJWC-8 Collected 2006-05-24 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
* Available Online from Wildflower Center Store

Bibliography

Bibref 417 - Field Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs of Eastern and Central North America (2000) Foster, S. & J. A. Duke
Bibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes (2002) Wasowski, Sally
Bibref 355 - Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest (1991) Miller, G. O.
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
* The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

From the Archive

Wildflower Newsletter1985 VOL. 2, NO.1 - A Glorious Spring, Lupines in Landscapes, Director's Report, Notable Quote, Wild...
Wildflower Newsletter1985 VOL. 2, NO.2 - Guide to Black-Eyed Susan, Parkways, Wildflowers for the East, Arboretum Mall to...
Wildflower Newsletter1987 VOL. 4, NO.3 - Fall Planting Highlights the Season, Jubilee Celebration Commences December 1987...
Wildflower Newsletter1987 VOL. 4, NO.4 - Wildflower Center Sows Seeds for the Country, Hotline for Texas, New Goals Plans...
Wildflower Newsletter1990 VOL. 7, NO.5 - Naturalistic Landscaping Takes Careful Planning, Director\'s Report, Breaking th...
Wildflower Newsletter1994 VOL. 11, NO.6 - Wildflower Center Featured Non-Profit in Neiman Marcus Christmas Book, Dana Leav...
Wildflower Newsletter1995 VOL. 12, NO.2 - Wildflower Center Opens April 8th through 9th, Grand Opening Schedule of Events,...

Additional resources

USDA: Find Rudbeckia hirta in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Rudbeckia hirta in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Rudbeckia hirta

Metadata

Record Last Modified: 2013-09-11
Research By: TWC Staff

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