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The Research Literature database was created and funded by the Florida Wildflower Foundation. Use the search features below to find scientific articles on native wildflowers that are commercially available or used in restoration projects.

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The Energy Cost of Bee Pollination for Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae)

Author(s): L. D. Harder and S. C. H. Barrett

Year: 1992

Journal: Functional Ecology
Volume: 6
Issue: 2
Pages: 226-233

Article Topic(s): Pollination
Research Setting(s): Wetland

Species Referenced: Pontederia cordata (Pickerelweed),


Describes flowering, pollination, and nectar production of Pontederia cordata. This species produces 10-40 flowers per day that are only open for eight hours. Flowers produce nectar throughout the day, presumably to attract insect pollinators, although most pollen has been removed by mid-day. Pontederia cordata is pollinated by two generalist bees and one specialist bee. Nectar production throughout the day may be explained by bet-hedging in unfavorable weather conditions and to maintain the attention of generalist pollinators.

Suggested Citation

L. D. Harder and S. C. H. Barrett. "The Energy Cost of Bee Pollination for Pontederia cordata (Pontederiaceae)." Functional Ecology 6.2 (1992): 226-233.

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