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Flaigg, Norman G.
Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall
Green ash, Red ash
Synonym(s): Fraxinus campestris, Fraxinus darlingtonii, Fraxinus lanceolata, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. austinii, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. integerrima, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata, Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima, Fraxinus smallii
USDA Symbol: frpe
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
Softly pyramidal in youth, this 50-75 ft., deciduous tree, develops an upright, spreading habit at maturity. Crown shape ranges from irregular and somewhat unsightly to a symetrical, round-topped silhouette. Leaves up to 8 or more inches long, divided into 5 to 9 1eaflets with smooth to slightly toothed margins and pointed tips. Deep-green summer foliage turns yellow in fall. Flowers small, in clusters, male and female on separate trees. Fruits in conspicuous clusters, dry, winged, resembling a paddle with a rounded or pointed blade, wing extending alongside the seed halfway or more to the base.
The most widespread native ash, this species extends westward into the plains and nearly to the Rocky Mountains. A northeastern variation with twigs, leafstalks, and underleaf surfaces all densely covered with hairs has been called Red Ash. One of the most successful hardwoods in the Great Plains shelterbelts, hardy, fast-growing Green Ash is also planted on spoil banks after strip mining, as well as for shade.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Leaf:
Yellow-Green Autumn Foliage:
Green Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Green , Purple , Brown
Bloom Time: Apr , May , Jun
, WY Canada: MB
, SK Native Distribution:
N.S. to Sask. & e. MT,
s. to FL
& e. TX Native Habitat:
Open woodlands, Stream, river banks, Swamps, Ditches, Ravines, Depressions
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry , Moist , Wet
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
CaCO3 Tolerance: High
Cold Tolerant: yes
Soil Description: Moist, fertile, sandy to loamy soils. Acid-based, Sandy Limestone-based, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam
Fall conspicuous, Fast growing Use Wildlife:
Cover, Nesting site, Fruit-birds, Browse. Use Other:
Red ash bark
produces a red dye, and the wood ashes are a source of potash. (Kershaw) Interesting Foliage:
Birds , Butterflies Larval Host:
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Two-tailed tiger swallowtail, Tiger swallow-tail, Orange sulphur, Cloudless giant sulphur, Mourning Cloak.
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Propagate by pretreated seed.
Seed Treatment: Seeds require warm-moist stratification for 60 days, followed by 120 days at 32-41 degrees.
Commercially Avail: yes
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
From the National Suppliers Directory
According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
American Native Nursery
- Quakertown, PA
Record Last Modified: 2007-08-31
Research By: NPC