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Loughmiller, Campbell and Lynn
Aesculus pavia L.
Scarlet Buckeye, Red buckeye, Firecracker plant
USDA Symbol: aepa
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (I)
Native from North Carolina south to Florida, west to central Texas, and as far north as Illinois, Aesculus pavia is a handsome shrub or small tree with showy panicles of deep red or yellow, campanulate flowers in early spring. The flower clusters are 6-10 inches long, and the individual flowers are 1-1 1/2 inches long. The stamens are rarely much longer than the top petals, usually shorter. The leaves are made up of 5 leaflets joined at a central point on a stem as long as the leaf. They are fine-toothed, glossy dark green above and whitish beneath. The leaves usually drop by the end of summer.
Two varieties are recognized. Aesculus pavia var. pavia has red flowers and is found throughout the range of the species except the western Edwards Plateau in central Texas, where variety flavescens occurs. Variety flavescens has pale to vivid, yellow flowers and is found naturally in only a few counties in central Texas. Where the ranges of the two varieties overlap, hybridization occurs, producing flowers in various combinations of yellow and red.
It is normal for this plant to drop its leaves by the end of summer, so try to place it where it will be highly visible in the early spring but less noticeable after it drops its leaves. The seeds and young shoots are poisonous if ingested, and indigenous people crushed these parts and put them in water to stupefy fish for easier capture. Soap may be obtained from the roots and a black dye from the wood. The species name, pavia, is in honor of Peter Paaw, a 16th century Dutch botanist.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Shrub
, Tree Root Type: Tap Leaf Retention: Deciduous Leaf Arrangement: Opposite Leaf Complexity: Palmate Leaf Shape: Elliptic Leaf Venation: Pinnate Leaf Pubescence: Glabrous
, Tomentose Leaf Margin: Crenate
, Serrate Leaf Apex: Acuminate Breeding System:
, Monoecious Inflorescence: Panicle Size Notes:
10-40 feet, Texas specimens usually on the short end of that range, with those in central Texas commonly no more than 15 feet. Leaf:
Green to Blue-green, turning yellow before dropping Flower:
Flowers 1-1.5 inches long each individual flower. Upper petals longer than others. Stamens
usually no longer than petals
Brown 1-2 inches Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Red , Yellow
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
Bloom Notes: Red-flowered plants are variety pavia, found from North Carolina, Florida, and Illinois to the eastern part of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Yellow-flowered plants are variety flavescens, found in the western Edwards Plateau of central Texas. Natural hybridization produces two-toned flowers where their ranges meet.
, WV Native Distribution:
Southeastern North America. North Carolina south to northern Florida, west to central Texas, and north to southern Illinois; to 1500 ft (457 m). Native Habitat:
Common in woods, along streams, in thickets, and on rocky hills.
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium , High
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8) , Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Drought Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Deep, well-drained sand, loam, clay, limestone. Variety pavia prefers more acidic, often sandy soils than variety flavescens, which is found in rocky limestone soils within its range.
Conditions Comments: Do not over-water. Too much water can lead to leaf spot diseases. Does best if protected from afternoon sun.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Planted as a handsome ornamental for the showy red flowers, suggesting firecrackers.
Use Wildlife: Flowers attract hummingbirds and bees. Nuts consumed by squirrels.
Use Medicinal: Pioneers made home remedies from the bitter bark.
Use Other: American Indians threw powdered seeds and crushed branches of this and other buckeyes into pools of water to stupefy fish. The fish then rose to the surface and were easily caught. Pioneers used the gummy roots as a soap substitute and the wood to produce a black dye.
Warning: Seeds and young shoots are poisonous to humans if eaten. Sensitivity to a toxin varies with a personís age, weight, physical condition, and individual susceptibility. Children are most vulnerable because of their curiosity and small size. Toxicity can vary in a plant according to season, the plantís different parts, and its stage of growth; and plants can absorb toxic substances, such as herbicides, pesticides, and pollutants from the water, air, and soil.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Deer Resistant: Moderate
PropagationPropagation Material: Root Cuttings , Seeds
Description: Sow untreated seeds promptly in loose, rich, well-drained soil.
Seed Collection: Collect when firm and brown.
Seed Treatment: None required. Immediate planting is necessary because seeds degenerate quickly due to high fat content.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Soak-water during droughts to delay leaf loss.
Mr. Smarty Plants says
How to propagate Texas red buckeye (Aesculus sp.) from seeds
May 01, 2007
I have a Texas Red Buckeye that is doing very well. How do I propagate from the seeds that come off of that tree? Thanks,
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
- Austin, TXPineywoods Native Plant Center
- Nacogdoches, TXDelaware Nature Society
- Hockessin, DECrosby Arboretum
- Picayune, MSTexas Parks and Wildlife Department
- Austin, TXNPSOT - Fredericksburg Chapter
- Fredericksburg, TXGeorgia Native Plant Society
- Atlanta, GANPSOT - Austin Chapter
- Austin, TXJacob's Well Natural Area
- Wimberley, TXNPSOT - Williamson County Chapter
- Georgetown, TX, TXMt. Cuba Center
- Hockessin, DE
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-07
Research By: TWC Staff, MWJ, GDG