Quercus nigra L.
Fagaceae (Beech Family)
Synonym(s): Quercus microcarya, Quercus nigra var. heterophylla
USDA Symbol: QUNI
Water oak is a conical to round-topped tree, 50-100 ft. tall, with thick, leathery, leaves that are semi-evergreen in the warmer parts of its range. The shiny, dark-green leaves are wedge-shaped and may have lobes at the tips. Foliage becomes yellow in fall. Tree with conical or rounded crown of slender branches, and fine textured foliage of small leaves.
A handsome, rapidly growing shade tree for moist soils in the Southeast; however, Water Oak is short-lived.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Venation: Pinnate
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Nut
Autumn Foliage: yes
Size Class: 72-100 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , DC , DE , FL , GA , IL , KY , LA , MD , MO , MS , NC , NJ , OK , SC , TN , TX , VA
Native Distribution: FL to e. TX, n. to NJ & s. MO
Native Habitat: Moist forests; waterways
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Cold Tolerant: yes
Soil Description: Deep, moist, poorly drained soils. Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam Clay Loam, Clay, Acid-based.
Conditions Comments: Considered a weed tree in some areas, but used effectively as a shade and street tree elsewhere. More weak-wooded and susceptible to wind and ice damage than most oaks. Older trees are susceptible to rot. Susceptibe to oak wilt, often with fatal consequences. Pine-oak rusts and leaf blister are two leaf ailments. Fast-growing.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Fast growing, Easily transplanted, Shade tree
Use Wildlife: Fruit-mammals, Fruit-birds, Nesting site, Substrate-insectivorous birds. Cover.
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Horaces Duskywing, White M hairstreak, Northern hairstreak.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)Quercus nigra is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
White M Hairstreak |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Oaks are most often propagated from seed. No pretreatment is necessary. Plant immediately – outdoors or in deep containers to accomodate long initial taproot. Many oaks require cold temperatures to initiate shoot development. Protect outdoor beds with
Seed Collection: Best quality acorns are picked or shaken from the tree. Collect when color has changed to brown. Best if sown immediately as acorns lose viability quickly in storage. Short-term storage in moist, shaded saw dust or sand. Acorns to be sown immediately can be soaked in hot water for 15 min. to prevent weevil infestation. Stored seed should be fumigated with methyl bromide.
Seed Treatment: Not Available
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
Stengl Biological Research Station - Smithville, TX
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Austin, TX
Georgia Native Plant Society - Atlanta, GA
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 766 - Dale Groom's Texas Gardening Guide (2002) Groom, D.
Bibref 355 - Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest (1991) Miller, G. O.
Bibref 841 - Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants (2006) Burrell, C. C.
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Quercus nigra in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Quercus nigra in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Quercus nigra
MetadataRecord Modified: 2008-05-22
Research By: TWC Staff