Pinus echinata Mill.
Shortleaf pine, Yellow pine, Spruce pine
Pinaceae (Pine Family)
USDA Symbol: PIEC2
The most widely distributed of the southern yellow pines, a large tree with broad, open crown. This is a 50-100 ft. pine with short, spreading branches forming a pyramidal crown that opens with age. Bright green, 5 in. needles grow in tufts. Trunks of larger trees have broad, flat, reddish-brown plates.
Shortleaf Pine is native in 21 southeastern states. An important timber species, producing lumber for construction, millwork, and many other uses, as well as plywood and veneer for containers. This and other southern pines are the major native pulpwoods and leading woods in production of barrels. Seedlings and small trees will sprout after fire damage or injury.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Fruit: Reddish brown
Size Class: 72-100 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , DC , DE , FL , GA , IL , KY , LA , MD , MO , MS , NC , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
Native Distribution: N. FL to e. TX, n. to NJ, WV, s. OH, KY & s.e. MO
Native Habitat: Dry, sandy, acidic soils of rocky, wooded ravines, bluffs & upland plains
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Dry, sandy soils. Acid-based, Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam
Conditions Comments: This is the hardiest and most adaptable of the southern pines. It is very drought-tolerant and fairly slow-growing. It is troubled by Nantucket pine tip moth, fusiform rust, root-rot organisams, southern pine beetle and other deleterious insects.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Attractive, Fast growing
Use Wildlife: Cover, Nesting site, Seeds-Small mammals, granivorous birds.
Larval Host: Elfin butterfly.
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)Pinus echinata is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Sow fresh, untreated seed in late fall.
Seed Collection: Collect cones from vigorous trees in late summer and fall just before they completely open to drop seeds. Spread cones on racks to dry so they will release seeds. Cones may be shaken to release seeds. Store at a moisture content of 5-10 % fresh weight.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Prevent complete soil dryness, Prune to maintain shape, Remove dead growth, Fertilize 3 times a year with lawn fertilizer 3:1:2 ratio
Find Seed or Plants
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
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From the National Suppliers DirectoryAccording to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
American Native Nursery - Quakertown, PA
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department - Austin, TX
BibliographyBibref 766 - Dale Groom's Texas Gardening Guide (2002) Groom, D.
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Pinus echinata in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus echinata in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus echinata
MetadataRecord Modified: 2013-09-05
Research By: TWC Staff