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Vick, Albert F. W.
Fraxinus americana L.
Synonym(s): Fraxinus americana var. biltmoreana, Fraxinus americana var. crassifolia, Fraxinus americana var. curtissii, Fraxinus americana var. juglandifolia, Fraxinus americana var. microcarpa, Fraxinus biltmoreana
USDA Symbol: FRAM2
Large tree with straight trunk and dense, conical or rounded crown of foliage with whitish lower surfaces. White ash is a 75-120 ft., large-canopied, deciduous tree with dense branching, pinnate leaves, and early fall color. Leaves turn yellow, then change to purple in autumn.
The wood of White Ash is particularly suited for making baseball bats, tennis racquets, hockey sticks, polo mallets, oars, and playground equipment. A variation with hairs covering twigs, leafstalks, and underleaf surfaces has been called Biltmore Ash.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Breeding System:
, Monoecious Leaf:
Green Autumn Foliage:
Green Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Purple
Bloom Time: Apr , May
, WV Canada: NB
, QC Native Distribution:
N.S. to s.e. MN
& e. NE,
s. to n. FL
& e. TX Native Habitat:
Rich, upland or lowland woods; well-drained stream banks; pastures
Growing ConditionsWater Use:
High Light Requirement:
Sun , Part Shade , Shade Soil Moisture:
Dry , Moist Soil pH:
Acidic (pH<6.8) CaCO3 Tolerance:
Medium Cold Tolerant:
Deep, mesic soils. Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay. Conditions Comments:
White ash has a medium growth rate. It is not as adaptable as green ash, but is considered superior as an ornamental. Susceptible, like many ashes, to a wide variety of disease and insect pests; these usually are not a problem to vigorously growing trees. Seedlings will tolerate quite a bit of shade, but if a full crown is desired, a generous amount of sun will be necessary as the tree
matures. Prune in fall.
Fall conspicuous Use Wildlife:
Winged seeds attract song and game birds. Cover, Nesting site, Seeds-granivorous birds, Browse. Use Other:
Some tribes used the bark
to produce a yellow dye. (Kershaw)
Ash leaf juice has been recommended for soothing mosquito bites and bee stings. (Kershaw) Attracts:
Birds , Butterflies Larval Host:
Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, Hickory Hairstreak (Satyrium caryaevorum), Mourning Cloak, Red-spotted Purple, Viceroy & Tiger Swallowtail
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Seeds may be sown outdoors after collection or stored and stratified then sown in spring.
Seed Treatment: Stratify in moist sand or perlite for 30-60 days at 41 degrees. Some references suggest preceding this treatment with an equal period of warm stratification.
Commercially Avail: yes
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Diagnosis of problems with Texas ash
June 07, 2006
Our 15 year old Texas ash has less leaf production this year. It also has a small amount of algae on the trunk, and some of the branches have small white spots on it. Also, a few of the branches close...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-06
Research By: TWC Staff