USDA Symbol: CAGI10
USDA Native Status:
Saguaro grows to 50 ft. in height; its tremendous weight, up to nine tons, is supported by a skeleton of about two dozen spongy, wooden rods. Accordian pleats contract as they gain and lose moisture. White flowers open after nightfall and close by late afternoon the following day. Saguaro has fleshy red fruit. Giant, leafless, columnar tree cactus with massive, spiny trunk and usually 2-10 stout, nearly erect, spiny branches.
Native Americans made use of the entire cactus: they ate the fruit both fresh and dried and made it into preserves and beverages; the framework of ribs provided wood for shelters, fences, and kindling. Giant Saguaro (pronounced sah-WAH-ro), the largest native cactus, is the state flower of Arizona and a symbol of desert landscapes. Well-adapted to its hot, dry climate, Giant Saguaro is leafless. Food is manufactured in the green stems, and rainwater is absorbed quickly by the shallow roots and stored in the succulent trunks and branches. The thick, spreading spines offer protection against animals. Gila woodpeckers and gilded flickers make round holes near the tops of branches for nests that are used afterwards by elf owls, cactus wrens, and other birds. Wildlife, especially white-winged doves, consume quantities of the seeds.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Size Notes: up to 46 ft.tall, 2 ft. thick.
Size Class: 36-72 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Green
Bloom Time: May , Jun
Bloom Notes: nocturnal flowers
DistributionUSA: AZ , CA
Native Distribution: In AZ – Yavapai & Mohave to Graham, Santa Cruz, Pine & Yuma Cos.; local in adjacent CA & Mex.
Native Habitat: Rocky foothills; canyons; washes; sandy or gravelly desert plains
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: High
Soil Description: Sandy or gravelly, well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: Saguaro cacti are protected by law and require government tags for purchase or transport. These are very slow-growing plants that live up to 250 years. The fleshy fruit is edible.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Flowers attract bees, bats and doves. Fruits attract many birds and mammals. Birds often nest in holes in the trunk.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
BibliographyBibref 1140 - Cacti (1991) Clive Innes and Charles Glass
Bibref 995 - Native Landscaping from El Paso to L.A. (2000) Wasowski, S. and A. Wasowski
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From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter 1989 VOL. 6, NO.2 - Wildflower Network Operates in Louisiana, Wildflower Handbook Published, Researc...
Wildflower Newsletter 1990 VOL. 7, NO.4 - Research Update, Wild-Collecting Endangers Natives, Director's Report, Maryland ...
Wildflower Newsletter 1993 VOL. 10, NO.5 - Plant Now for Spring Beauty, Director's Report, Wildflower Center Offers Educati...
Wildflower Newsletter 1995 VOL. 12, NO.3 - Explore the Big Bend With the Wildflower Center, Education Director\'s Report, T...
Wildflower Newsletter 1996 VOL. 13, NO.5 - Bats as Cacti Pollinators, Fall Foliage Hotlines, Creating Fall Foliage Leafprin...
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Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Carnegiea gigantea in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Carnegiea gigantea in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Carnegiea gigantea
MetadataRecord Modified: 2010-09-09
Research By: TWC Staff