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Tsuga canadensis (Eastern hemlock) | NPIN
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Tsuga canadensis (Eastern hemlock)
Wasowski, Sally and Andy

Tsuga canadensis

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière

Eastern hemlock

Pinaceae (Pine Family)

Synonym(s):

USDA Symbol: tsca

USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)

Eastern hemlock is a straight-trunked, gracefully pyramidal tree with long, pendulous limbs and short-needled, feathery branches. Evergreen needles are dark-green with silvery undersides.Evergreen tree with conical crown of long, slender, horizontal branches often drooping down to the ground, and a slender, curved, and drooping leader. Height is usually 40-70 ft., but can reach 100 ft. or more.

The bark was once a commercial source of tannin in the production of leather. Pioneers made tea from leafy twigs and brooms from the branches. A graceful shade tree and ornamental, it can also be trimmed into hedges.

 

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf: Dark Green
Flower:
Fruit: Brown
Size Class: 72-100 ft.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Apr

Distribution

USA: AL , CT , DC , DE , GA , IN , KY , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , NC , NH , NJ , NY , OH , PA , RI , SC , TN , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NS , ON , PE , QC
Native Distribution: N.S. to Man., s. to MD & n.e. MN; along mts. to GA & AL
Native Habitat: Rocky ridges; moist, mountain slopes

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Rocky, cool, moist soils.
Conditions Comments: Eastern hemlock can be a fast-grower, but is more often slow-growing. It must be placed where there is good drainage and no strong, drying winds. Trees seem somewhat pH adaptable but prefers acidity. They can be restrained as a hedge for years with regular pruning. Sunscorch kills back branches, and drought kills the tree. A number of diseases and insects can be troublesome, but trees in good health prove reliable.

Benefit

Use Wildlife: Other Showy Insects
Fragrant Foliage: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Columbia silkmoth

Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)

Tsuga canadensis is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Columbia silkmoth
(Hyalophora columbia)

Larval Host
Learn more at BAMONA

Propagation

Description: Layering has proven successful, as has propagation by seed and cuttings. Cutting must be treated. Sow seeds in fall or stratify until spring. Spreading a layer of compost on bare soil beneath a mature hemlock and allowing natural seeding to produce a f
Seed Collection: Cones mature in one season. Pick cones as they begin to open and leave in paper sacks until seed can be shaken free.
Seed Treatment: A 2-4 month stratification at 40 degrees hastens germination.
Commercially Avail: yes

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.

Mr. Smarty Plants says

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National Wetland Indicator Status

Region:AGCPAKAWCBEMPGPHIMWNCNEWMVE
Status: FACU FACU FACU FACU
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

From the National Suppliers Directory

According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:

Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA
LAMTREE FARM - Warrensville, NC
American Native Nursery - Quakertown, PA

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Georgia Native Plant Society - Atlanta, GA
Longwood Gardens - Newark, DE
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE

Bibliography

Bibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Additional resources

USDA: Find Tsuga canadensis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Tsuga canadensis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tsuga canadensis

Metadata

Record Modified: 2013-09-05
Research By: TWC Staff

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