Onoclea sensibilis L.
Sensitive fern, Bead fern, Sympathy fern
Dryopteridaceae (Wood Indies-Almond Family)
USDA Symbol: onse
Sensitive fern varies in height from a few inches to more than 3 ft. Its sterile fronds, which wither early, are light to brown-mottled green and deeply cut into long lobes which almost reach the stem. Twice-pinnate fertile fronds appear in late summer and, though dead, remain upright through winter. Fiddleheads appear in the spring in shades of pale red. The roots colonize but are usually shallow, though hefty. The stalks of this fern are said to have a decorative, beaded appearance, lending the plant one of its common names, Bead Fern.
Common name is derived from the early sensitivity of this fern to frost.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Habit: Herb , Fern
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf: Light green
Flower: Spores borne in globose bodies at the tip of a stalk separate from the leaves.
Size Class: 1-3 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Not Applicable
Bloom Time: Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov
Bloom Notes: Not a flowering plant. Reproduces by spores.
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , CO , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , MS , NC , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SC , SD , TN , TX , VA , VT , WI , WV
Canada: NB , NL , NS , ON , PE
Native Distribution: Newfoundland to Sask., s. to n. FL & TX; also collected in Douglas Co., CO. Eastern North America, Zones 4 to 8.
Native Habitat: Moist woodlands, floodplains, stream banks, swamps, marshes
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium , High
Light Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
Soil pH: Acidic (pH<6.8)
Drought Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Various loose, acidic, moist to wet soils. Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Limestone-based.
Conditions Comments: Can grow in very wet soils as long as there is adequate oxygen. It cannot tolerate sour clay or stagnant water. Also, does not tolerate freezing well, turns black even in light frost.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Bog or pond area, Water garden
Use Wildlife: Shelters salamanders and frogs
Use Other: Cut fronds good for dried flower arrangements
Interesting Foliage: yes
PropagationPropagation Material: Root Division
Description: Propagate by rhizome division or spores.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: If it gets too aggressive for your tastes, thin it out.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Suppliers DirectoryAccording to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
Edge of the Woods Native Plant Nursery - Orefield, PA
American Native Nursery - Quakertown, PA
Toadshade Wildflower Farm - Frenchtown, NJ
Prairie Nursery - Westfield, WI
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Delaware Nature Society - Hockessin, DE
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
Bibref 1231 - Guide To the Ferns of Grey and Bruce Counties, Ontario (1999) Owen Sound Field Naturalists
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
* The Midwestern Native Garden: Native Alternatives to Nonnative Flowers and Plants An Illustrated Guide (2011) Adelman, Charlotte and Schwartz, Bernard L.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Onoclea sensibilis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Onoclea sensibilis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Onoclea sensibilis
MetadataRecord Modified: 2014-05-12
Research By: TWC Staff