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Salix eriocephala Michx.
Missouri River willow, Missouri willow, Stiff willow
Synonym(s): Salix acutidens, Salix angustata, Salix cordata, Salix cordata ssp. rigida, Salix cordata var. abrasa, Salix cordata var. angustata, Salix cordata var. missouriensis, Salix cordata var. rigida, Salix cordata var. rigida, Salix cordata var. rigida, Salix cordata var. vestita, Salix discolor var. eriocephala, Salix missouriensis, Salix myricoides var. angustata, Salix myricoides var. cordata, Salix myricoides var. rigida, Salix rigida, Salix rigida var. angustata, Salix rigida var. vestita, Salix torreyana
USDA Symbol: SAER
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
A narrow shrub or small tree to 20 ft. with multiple trunks and dark-gray, scaly bark. Lance-shaped leaves are thick and persistently pubescent beneath. Catkins, which appear before the leaves in early spring, are densely silky.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Shrub Leaf:
Green Autumn Foliage:
Brown Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar
, WV Canada: NB
, PE Native Distribution:
Nf. to Yukon, s. to VA,
n. AR, KS, AZ
& CA Native Habitat:
Banks of large streams; flood plains; wet meadows
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Moist, sandy soils
Conditions Comments: Short-lived and fast-growing. Susceptible to insect, disease, and wind damage. *This species consists of about a half dozen varieties, some of which are sometimes treated at the specific level, including the western species S. mackenzieana, S. lutea & S. monochroma. Var. rigida is the typical species in the e. U.S. & Canada.
Heartleaf willow typically has silvery galls caused by small insects. In
the past, galls were steeped to make a medicinal tea for stimulating urination and relieving fluid retention. (Kershaw) Attracts:
Butterflies Larval Host:
Willows are among the easiest of all plants to root from cuttings. Stem
and root cuttings are used. Propagation is also accomplished by sowing fresh, untreated seed onto a moist seedbed. Seed viability lasts only a few days. Seed Collection:
Not Available Seed Treatment:
No treatment is necessary. Commercially Avail:
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
Record Last Modified: 2012-06-30
Research By: TWC Staff