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Salix eriocephala Michx.
Missouri River willow, Missouri willow, Stiff willow
Synonyms: Salix rigida
USDA Symbol: SAER
USDA Native Status: Native to U.S.
A narrow shrub or small tree to 20 ft. with multiple trunks and dark-gray, scaly bark. Lance-shaped leaves are thick and persistently pubescent beneath. Catkins, which appear before the leaves in early spring, are densely silky.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Shrub Leaf:
Green Autumn Foliage:
Brown Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar
AL , AR , CT , DC , DE , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KS , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MI , MN , MO , ND , NE , NH , NJ , NY , OH , OK , PA , RI , SD , TN , VA , VT , WI , WV Canada: NB
, PE Native Distribution:
Nf. to Yukon, s. to VA, n. AR, KS, AZ & CA Native Habitat:
Banks of large streams; flood plains; wet meadows USDA Native Status: L48(N), CAN(N)
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium
Soil Description: Moist, sandy soils
Conditions Comments: Short-lived and fast-growing. Susceptible to insect, disease, and wind damage. *This species consists of about a half dozen varieties, some of which are sometimes treated at the specific level, including the western species S. mackenzieana, S. lutea & S. monochroma. Var. rigida is the typical species in the e. U.S. & Canada.
BenefitUse Medicinal: Heartleaf willow typically has silvery galls caused by small insects. In the past, galls were steeped to make a medicinal tea for stimulating urination and relieving fluid retention. (Kershaw)
Larval Host: Mourning Cloak
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
is a larval host and/or nectar source for:
Willows are among the easiest of all plants to root from cuttings. Stem
and root cuttings are used. Propagation is also accomplished by sowing fresh, untreated seed onto a moist seedbed. Seed viability lasts only a few days. Seed Collection:
Not Available Seed Treatment:
No treatment is necessary. Commercially Avail:
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Record Modified: 2012-06-30
Research By: TWC Staff