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Marcus, Joseph A.
Phytolacca americana L.
American pokeweed, Pokeweed, Pokeberry, Red Ink Plant
USDA Symbol: PHAM4
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
A tall, large-leaved, branching plant with reddish stems and long clusters of small, white flowers.
This is frequently a troublesome weed with poisonous berries and roots, although emerging shoots can be gathered before the pink color appears, cooked, and eaten as greens. The berry juice was used as a dye by the early colonists and to improve cheap wine.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Herb Leaf:
Purple Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Pink
Bloom Time: Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct
, WV Canada: NB
, QC Native Distribution:
Ontario to southern Quebec, New England, and New York; south to Florida; west to Texas and Mexico; north to Minnesota. Native Habitat:
Open woods, damp thickets, clearings, roadsides.
Growing ConditionsWater Use:
Medium Light Requirement:
Part Shade Soil Moisture:
Moist CaCO3 Tolerance:
High Conditions Comments:
Pokeweed has a perennial
root stock, and also reseeds. It proliferates in disturbed areas,and though it can be used as a dye and some say the young leaves can be used as a salad, the entire
plant is considered poisonous and is potentially lethal. Extreme caution should be taken when using it as a food.
EDIBLE PARTS: Young tender leaves eaten only as thoroughly cooked greens (in two waters). Cooked berries are safe for making pies. Berries, roots and mature plants are poisonous, therefore, only use as new, young growth. Do not cut below ground level to avoid using parts of poisonous roots. Any red-tinged material should be discarded.
PREPARATION: Wash young shoots thoroughly. Peel and parboil tender young shoots (less than eight inches) in two changes of water several minutes each. Boil in a third water until tender and serve like asparagus. Young stalks less than one foot tall, with leaves removed, and before red tinged, can be cut and rolled in corn meal and fried like okra. They can also be pickled. Young leaves taken from stalks less than one foot tall can be parboiled in two changes of water for several minutes each and boiled in a third water until tender. To freeze, parboil leaves twice, cook, pat dry and place them in plastic bags. (Poisonous Plants of N.C.)
juice was used as a dye by the early colonists and to improve cheap wine. (Niering) Warning:
POISONOUS PARTS: All parts, mainly the roots; shoots, leaves, and berries when fresh and in quantity. Highly toxic, may be fatal if eaten. Toxic Principle: Phytolaccatoxin and related triterpene saponins, an alkaloid (phytolaccin), and histamines.
Medicinal: Amerindians used berry
tea for rheumatism, arthritis, dysentery; poulticed berries on sore breasts, root poulticed for rheumatism, neuralgic pains, bruises; wash used for sprains, swellings; leaf preparations once used as an expectorant. (Weiner)
Emetic and cathartic, poulticed for bleeding, pimples and black heads, juice may cause dermatitis. (Foster & Duke)
Birds Deer Resistant:
Mr. Smarty Plants says
September 24, 2008
I have a single stem red vine with purple berries growing on it. It is in a cluster of bushes and gets mostly morning and early afternoon sun. The berries also have small bumps at the stem. I have ...
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National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
Record Last Modified: 2012-12-09
Research By: NPC