Monarda citriodora Cerv. ex Lag.
Lemon beebalm, Purple horsemint, Lemon mint, Plains horsemint, Lemon horsemint, Horsemint, Purple lemon mint
Lamiaceae (Mint Family)
USDA Symbol: MOCI
Known by a number of common names, lemon beebalm is a 1-2 ft., aromatic winter annual with unusual, tuft-like, lavender to pink, whorled flower heads. Each whorl in the elongated spike is subtended by whitish or lavender, leaf-like bracts. Several stems grow from the base and are lined with pairs of lance-shaped leaves.
Horsemint has a distinctive citrus or lemony scent when the leaves are rubbed or crushed. It is very easy to grow and often forms large colonies. Bees and butterflies are attacted to this plant.
Linnaeus named the genus Monarda in honor of a 16th century Spanish physician and botanist, Nicolas Bautista Monardes (1493-1588). Monardes never went to the Americas but was able to study medicinal plants in Spain because Spain controlled navigation and commerce from the New World.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Annual
Size Notes: 1-2
Size Class: 1-3 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Pink , Purple
Bloom Time: May , Jun , Jul
Bloom Notes: If watered, horsemint will continue flowering through the end of summer and even into September and early October.
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , AZ , FL , GA , IL , KS , KY , LA , MO , MS , NE , NM , OK , SC , TN , TX , UT
Native Distribution: E. KY, MO & KS, s. to AR, TX, NM & Mex.; introduced eastward
Native Habitat: Prairie, Plains, Meadows, Pastures, Savannahs, Hillsides, Slopes
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Sandy loam to rocky soils. Clay Loam, Medium Loam, Sandy Loam, Sandy, Clay
Conditions Comments: Bees and butterflies are especially attracted to this pretty plant. It often occurs in large masses. Lemon mint is very easy to grow and often forms large colonies. It can become aggressive if given optimum growing conditions. It is susceptible to powdery mildew.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Wildflower meadow, Long-blooming, Shortgrass meadow, Easily grown, Blooms ornamental, Aromatic
Use Wildlife: Bees and butterflies are attacted to this plant. Nectar-Butterflies, Nectar-Bees, Nectar-insects
Use Food: Leaves used raw or cooked for flavoring in salads, cooked foods, and for tea.
Conspicuous Flowers: yes
Interesting Foliage: yes
Fragrant Foliage: yes
Attracts: Butterflies , Hummingbirds
Nectar Source: yes
Deer Resistant: High
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
Special Value to Bumble Bees
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
PropagationPropagation Material: Seeds
Description: Easily grown from seed. Spread the seed evenly and rake into loose topsoil in fall or early spring. Supplemental watering is suggested if spring rains are poor. Provide additional water in May if necessary until the plants reach 10 – 12 inches tall. Once established, should reseed itself. Seeding rate is 3 pounds/acre. There are approximately 819,000 seeds/pound.
Commercially Avail: yes
Maintenance: Allow seeds to mature completely (spherical heads become dry and brown) before mowing or cutting down. Since an annual, it is essential this species is allowed to reseed itself for the following year.
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From the National Suppliers DirectoryAccording to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
Far South Wholesale Nursery - Austin, TX
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Fredericksburg Nature Center - Fredericksburg, TX
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - Austin, TX
Texas Discovery Gardens - Dallas, TX
Brackenridge Field Laboratory - Austin, TX
Stengl Biological Research Station - Smithville, TX
NPSOT - Fredericksburg Chapter - Fredericksburg, TX
National Butterfly Center - Mission, TX
Herbarium Specimen(s)NPSOT 0159 Collected May 22, 1991 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps
NPSOT 0331 Collected May 22, 1987 in Bexar County by Harry Cliffe
NPSOT 0015 Collected May 17, 1990 in Bexar County by Judith C. Berry
NPSOT 0058 Collected May 19, 1990 in Bexar County by Lottie Millsaps
Wildflower Center Seed BankLBJWC-28 Collected 2006-06-19 in Travis County by Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center
BibliographyBibref 946 - Gardening with Prairie Plants: How to Create Beautiful Native Landscapes (2002) Wasowski, Sally
Bibref 355 - Landscaping with Native Plants of Texas and the Southwest (1991) Miller, G. O.
Bibref 318 - Native Texas Plants: Landscaping Region by Region (2002) Wasowski, S. & A. Wasowski
Bibref 248 - Texas Wildflowers: A Field Guide (1984) Loughmiller, C. & L. Loughmiller
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender
Bibref 36 - Useful wild plants of Texas, the Southeastern and Southwestern United States, the Southern Plains, and Northern Mexico (Volume 1: Abronia-Arundo) (1995) S. Cheatham; M. C. Johnston; L. Marshall
Bibref 328 - Wildflowers of Texas (2003) Ajilvsgi, Geyata.
Bibref 286 - Wildflowers of the Texas Hill Country (1989) Enquist, M.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
From the ArchiveWildflower Newsletter 1986 VOL. 3, NO.3 - Fall Planting Tips, Growth Provides Enthusiasm, 1985 Financial Facts, Gathering ...
Wildflower Newsletter 1986 VOL. 3, NO.4 - Fall Highlights Busy Season at the Center, Wildflower Days Welcome the Holidays,...
Wildflower Newsletter 1993 VOL. 10, NO.3 - Miss Helen Hayes Memorial, Director's Report, Monarda Medicinal Mints of Distinc...
Wildflower Newsletter 1997 VOL. 14, NO.4 - Pollination and Pollinators, Big Bugs Exhibit, A Taste of Honey, Executive Direc...
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Monarda citriodora in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Monarda citriodora in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Monarda citriodora
MetadataRecord Modified: 2013-11-09
Research By: TWC Staff, LAL, MAC