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Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet
Synonym(s): Carya glabra var. glabra, Carya glabra var. hirsuta, Carya glabra var. megacarpa, Carya leiodermis, Carya magnifloridana, Carya microcarpa, Carya ovalis var. hirsuta, Carya ×ovalis var. hirsuta, Hicoria austrina, Hicoria glabra, Hicoria glabra var. hirsuta
USDA Symbol: CAGL8
USDA Native Status: L48 (N), CAN (N)
A coarse-textured tree, 50-100 ft., with short, picturesque branches, irregular, spreading crown and thick-shelled nuts. Bark is not shaggy. Leaves are pinnately compound, the terminal leaflets considerably larger than the lower pair, turning a rich, golden-yellow color in fall.
One of the most common hickories in the southern Appalachians and an important timber source there, its wood is made into tool handles and skis. It was formerly used for wagon wheels and textile loom picker sticks because it could sustain tremendous vibration. Named in colonial times from the consumption of the small nuts by hogs. Early settlers, who also called it Broom Hickory, made brooms from narrow splits of the wood. Red Hickory (var. odorata (Marsh.) Little), a variety with nearly the same range, has the fruit husk splitting to base, usually 7 leaflets, and often shaggy bark.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Leaf:
Green Autumn Foliage:
Brown Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Green , Brown
Bloom Time: Apr
, WV Canada: ON Native Distribution:
to c. MI,
s. to c. FL,
& s.e. KS Native Habitat:
Dry slopes & dunes
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Sun , Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil pH: Circumneutral (pH 6.8-7.2)
CaCO3 Tolerance: High
Soil Description: Well-drained to dry, rich loams & silty clays.
Conditions Comments: Most shade tolerant hickory. Most flood intolerant hickory. Very long-lived. Difficult to transplant because of a large taproot. Nuts are bitter.
BenefitUse Wildlife: Songbirds and small mammals. Serves as a primary host for some magnificent moths.
Use Other: The tough, heavy wood makes excellent tool handles, broom handles, and sport implements. The bitter, inedible nutmeats are probably best left to pigs and wild animals. (Kershaw)
Because of its low conductivity of heat, it is prized for wagon parts, like the hub, where the heat of friction may be great.
American Hickory is the most prized wood of skiers the world over. For Hickory is stronger than steel, weight for weight, more elastic, less brittle and less heat-conductive. (Peattie)
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Luna, funeral dagger, and giant regal
PropagationDescription: Most easily grown from fresh seed sown immediately after collection or stratified and sown in spring. Increase by hardwood cuttings is usually successful.
Seed Collection: Collect nuts from September to November. Husks usually dry and split open by themselves when the nuts are mature. Persistent husks can be removed with a corn sheller.
Seed Treatment: Embyro dormancy can be overcome by moist stratification at 33-40 degrees for 30-150 days. Older seeds require less stratification.
Commercially Avail: yes
National Wetland Indicator Status
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1
(Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here
for map of regions.
From the National Suppliers Directory
According to the inventory provided by Associate Suppliers, this plant is available at the following locations:
American Native Nursery
- Quakertown, PA
From the National Organizations Directory
According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is either on display or available from the following:
- Picayune, MSLongwood Gardens
- Newark, DEMt. Cuba Center
- Hockessin, DE
Record Last Modified: 2013-09-06
Research By: TWC Staff