Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.
Giant cane, River cane, Switch cane, American bamboo
Poaceae (Grass Family)
Synonym(s): Arundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea, Arundinaria gigantea ssp. macrosperma
USDA Symbol: ARGI
A woody perennial from hard, tough rhizomes, forming open to dense colonies. The slender stems are 3-25 ft. tall, at first unbranched, later branching and forming fanlike clusters. Basal leaves and those on primary branches are short and narrow; upper leaves are longer and wider. Spikelets occur on long, slender stalks, flowering at infrequent intervals. Flowering stems die after seeds mature. Arundinaria gigantea tends to occur along or in the floodplains of moving bodies of water such as streams or rivers. Smaller, more blue-green populations on lower, wetter sites of non-moving water like swamps are classified as Arundinaria tecta, (Walter) Muhl., and referred to as Switch cane, while much smaller (no more than one meter high) plants on drier upland sites are classified as Arundinaria appalachiana, Triplett, Weakley & L.G. Clark, and called Hill cane.
The northernmost bamboo in the Americas, Arundinaria gigantea at one time ranged from what is now southern New Jersey, southern Ohio, and southern Illinois south to northern Florida and west to eastern Texas and eastern Oklahoma, forming its own ecosystems called canebrakes. In some areas, like the Gulf Coast savannas and what would become Kentucky, landscapes as far as the eye could see were covered with this giant grass. It formed the understory in cane savannas in the Southeast and provided cover for a variety of animals, some of which relied on it, like Wood Bison, Canebrake Rattlesnakes, Swamp Rabbits, and several species of warbler. When its numbers were huge, it often seeded out all at once, inviting great flocks of birds to partake of the feast. Humans, too, utilized the plant for basketry and home construction. Today, it is limited to occasional patches, as it was cleared away with European invasion from the 16th to 19th centuries.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Root Type: Fibrous
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Leaf Venation: Parallel
Fruit Type: Caryopsis
Size Class: 3-6 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Green
Bloom Time: Feb , Mar , Apr , May
Bloom Notes: Bloom: dark green
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , FL , GA , IL , IN , KY , LA , MD , MO , MS , NC , NJ , OH , OK , SC , TN , TX , VA , WV
Native Distribution: Southern New Jersey to s. IL, s. to northern FL & eastern TX. In Texas, confined to the eastern region no farther west than the Brazos River.
Native Habitat: River banks; damp woods; bogs; rich-soiled uplands
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Wet
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Wet soils.
Conditions Comments: Not Available
BenefitUse Wildlife: Relied on by Bachmans Warbler, Swainsons Warbler, turkeys, Canebrake Rattlesnakes, Swamp Rabbits, Wood Bison, Black Bear, White-tailed Deer, and Elk
Use Other: Extensively used for basketry by southeastern indigenous peoples, as well as for home-building by groups like the Caddo
Interesting Foliage: yes
Attracts: Birds , Butterflies
Larval Host: Creole Pearly Eye (Enodia creola), Southern Pearly Eye (Enodia portlandia), Southern Swamp Skipper (Poanes yehl), Cobweb Little Skipper (Amblyscrites aesculapius), Cane Little Skipper (Amblyscrites reversa), Yellow Little Skipper (Amblyscrites carolina)
Deer Resistant: No
PropagationDescription: Not Available
Seed Collection: Not Available
Seed Treatment: Not Available
Commercially Avail: yes
Mr. Smarty Plants says
Native alternatives for non-native, invasive bamboo in New York
March 26, 2006
I hope you can help me. This is not about wildflowers. I'm interested in planting bamboo as a screen (25'+). I know all the pros/cons and would need to have a nursery to put in barrier. I need some...
view the full question and answer
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Pineywoods Native Plant Center - Nacogdoches, TX
Crosby Arboretum - Picayune, MS
BibliographyBibref 1780 - Canebrakes: Bamboo Forests of the Southeast, in Wild Earth journal, volume 12, number 2, pp. 38-45 (2002) Platt, Steven; Christopher Brantley; and Thomas Ra...
Bibref 1282 - Explorers' Texas: The Lands and Waters (1984) Weniger, Del
Bibref 841 - Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants (2006) Burrell, C. C.
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 21 - Canebrakes, Bamboo Forests of the Southeast (2002) Wildlands Project
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Arundinaria gigantea in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Arundinaria gigantea in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Arundinaria gigantea
MetadataRecord Modified: 2015-11-19
Research By: TWC Staff