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Pinus strobiformis

Pinus strobiformis Engelm.

Southwestern White Pine, Border White Pine, Mexican White Pine, Border Limber Pine, Limber Pine

Pinaceae (Pine Family)

Synonym(s): Pinus ayacahuite, Pinus flexilis var. reflexa, Pinus reflexa

USDA Symbol: pist3

USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

Southwestern white pine grows to 80 ft. in height and can attain a trunk diameter of over 3 ft. Slender branches form a broad, rounded crown. Bark on young trees is smooth and whitish-gray; as the tree matures the bark becomes dark brown and deeply furrowed. Needles, from 2-5 in. long, are blue-green.

The large seeds are consumed by wildlife and were eaten by southwestern Indians. This species of the Mexican border region was formerly considered a southern variety of Limber Pine, which has a broader, more northern distribution, is smaller, and has smooth-edged needles with white lines on all surfaces and shorter cones with thick, rounded, blunt-pointed cone-scales.


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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 80 feet tall.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow , Brown
Bloom Time: Jun
Bloom Notes: Flowers inconspicuous. Pollen cones pale yellowish brown.


USA: AZ , CO , NM , TX
Native Distribution: Mts. of Trans-Pecos, TX west to AZ & south to c. Mex.
Native Habitat: High elevation, Canyons, Hillsides, Slopes. Mountain canyons; 7000 to 10,000 ft.

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Low
Light Requirement: Sun
Soil Moisture: Dry
Soil Description: Rocky soils. Limestone-based, Sandy, Sandy Loam, Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay


Bibref 766 - Dale Groom's Texas Gardening Guide (2002) Groom, D.
Bibref 298 - Field Guide to Texas Trees (1999) Simpson, B.J.
Bibref 291 - Texas Wildscapes: Gardening for Wildlife (1999) Damude, N. & K.C. Bender

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Additional resources

USDA: Find Pinus strobiformis in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus strobiformis in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus strobiformis


Record Modified: 2015-11-09
Research By: TWC Staff

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