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Wikstroemia bicornuta

Wikstroemia bicornuta Hillebr.

Alpine False Ohelo

Thymelaeaceae (Mezereum family)

Synonym(s): Wikstroemia bicornuta ssp. montis-eke


USDA Native Status: HI (N)

"Straggling shrubs to small trees 1-2.5(-7) m tall; young branches hirsute or glabrous." (bibref: 1798).

Endemic to the Hawaiian islands "on the hiqhest ridge of Lana'i and on Mount 'Eke, West Maui." (webref: 49).


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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub , Tree
Leaf Arrangement: Opposite
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Margin: Entire
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual
Inflorescence: Axillary , Terminal
Fruit Type: Drupe
Leaf: "Leaves dark green on upper surface, lower surface lighter, chartaceous, elliptic to broadly ovate or suborbicular, (2-)3.5-8(-10) cm long, (1.5-)2.5-4.5(-6) cm wide, pubescent or with scattered hairs at least along the midrib and lateral veins, sometimes glabrous, apex and base obtuse to broadly rounded, rarely slightly acute and with tapering base, petioles 3-12 mm long, pubescent." (bibref: 1798).
Flower: "Flowers unisexual, greenish, pubescent or sparsely pilose, peduncles thick, ca. 3 mm long, hirsute, rachis subsessile, 2-10 mm long, hirsute, pedicels 0.5-3.5 mm long; calyx tube of staminate flowers (5-)8-13 mm long, outer lobes 2-4.5 mm long, 1.5-3.8 mm wide, inner lobes 1.8-3 mm long, 1.5-3.5 mm wide, all lobes somewhat fleshy; calyx tube of pistillate flowers (4-)6.5-9.5 mm long, outer lobes 2-4.5 mm long, 1.7-3.2 mm wide, inner lobes 1.2-3 mm long, 1.2-3 mm wide." (webref: 49).
Fruit: "Drupe ovoid... orange-colored, with a smooth chartaceous putamen." (bibref: 1808).

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Green
Bloom Time: Jan , Feb , Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov , Dec


Native Distribution: Endemic to the Hawaiian islands "on the hiqhest ridge of Lana'i and on Mount 'Eke, West Maui." (bibref: 1798).
Native Habitat: "Occurring in wet forest, 900-1,050 m, in a few restricted areas on the highest ridge of Lanai and on Mount Eke, West Maui." (webref: 1798). This taxon is "rare in wet forest 900–1050 m". (webref: 47). "Wet forests and bogs on ridgetops, gulch slopes, and flattish areas." (webref: 28).

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Low , High
Light Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
Soil Description: Wet soils.

National Wetland Indicator Status

Status: FAC
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.


Bibref 1798 - Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, Revised Edition (1999) Wagner, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 49 - Flora of the Hawaiian Islands (2020) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
Webref 47 - Hawaiian Ethnobotany Online Database (2020) Bishop Museum
Webref 31 - Native Plants Hawai’i (2018) University of Hawaii
Webref 28 - NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life (2018) NatureServe

Additional resources

USDA: Find Wikstroemia bicornuta in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Wikstroemia bicornuta in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Wikstroemia bicornuta


Record Modified: 2020-11-02
Research By: Joseph A. Marcus

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