Viola glabella Nutt.
Pioneer Violet, Smooth Yellow Violet
Violaceae (Violet Family)
USDA Symbol: VIGL
This is a 4-15 in. violet with large, bright-green, heart-shaped basal leaves just below the deep-yellow, pansy-like flowers. The lateral and lower petals are marked with purple veins. Slender leaning or erect stems with leaves only in upper one-third, and bilaterally symmetrical, yellow flowers facing outward, hanging from slender stalks.
A very common species in moist, shaded places in woods. Most western Violets have yellow rather than purple corollas, but all have the perky little flower with a spur or pouch behind the lower petal. The lower petal forms a landing platform for insects seeking nectar within the spur.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Capsule
Size Notes: Up to about 15 inches tall.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow , Purple
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug
Bloom Notes: Sometimes purple veined.
DistributionUSA: AK , CA , ID , MT , OR , WA
Native Distribution: C. & n. CA to AK, e. to the northern Rockies
Native Habitat: Cool, moist redwood forests; stream banks
Growing ConditionsLight Requirement: Part Shade , Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist , Wet
Soil Description: Moist to wet soils.
Conditions Comments: Smooth yellow violet is easy to establish in woodland gardens. It may reseed and can become a bit invasive.
BenefitConspicuous Flowers: yes
Fragrant Flowers: yes
Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA)
Silver-bordered Fritillary |
Learn more at BAMONA
PropagationDescription: Propagate by seed.
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
National Wetland Indicator Status
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
BibliographyBibref 1186 - Field Guide to Moths of Eastern North America (2005) Covell, C.V., Jr.
Bibref 1185 - Field Guide to Western Butterflies (Peterson Field Guides) (1999) Opler, P.A. and A.B. Wright
Search More Titles in Bibliography
Web ReferenceWebref 30 - Calflora (2018) Calflora
Webref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Viola glabella in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Viola glabella in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Viola glabella
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-01-03
Research By: TWC Staff