Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.
Pinaceae (Pine Family)
USDA Symbol: TSCA2
Carolina hemlock is an airy, spiry-topped evergreen with a tapering trunk and short, stout, often pendulous branches forming a evenly pyramidal head. The glossy, dark-green needles radiate around the stem creating a bottle-brush effect. Usually grows 40-60 ft. in height.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 95 feet tall, often shorter.
Leaf: Dark Green
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Apr
DistributionUSA: GA , NC , SC , TN , VA
Native Distribution: S.w. VA to n. GA
Native Habitat: Dry slopes, bluffs & rocky areas; occasionally in moist places
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Moist to dry, well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: Carolina hemlock is more compact and darker green than Eastern hemlock. It is also more tolerant of city conditions. It is not easily found in the nursery trade, however, even though it is considered a prized ornamental. Droughty conditions are not tolerated.
PropagationDescription: Layering has proven successful, as has propagation by seed and cuttings. Cutting must be treated.
Seed Collection: Cones mature in one season.
Seed Treatment: A 2-4 month stratification at 40 degrees hastens germination.
Commercially Avail: yes
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE
BibliographyBibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski
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Web ReferenceWebref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Tsuga caroliniana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Tsuga caroliniana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tsuga caroliniana
MetadataRecord Modified: 2022-09-26
Research By: TWC Staff