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Tsuga caroliniana (Carolina hemlock)
Cressler, Alan

Tsuga caroliniana

Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.

Carolina Hemlock

Pinaceae (Pine Family)


USDA Symbol: TSCA2

USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

Carolina hemlock is an airy, spiry-topped evergreen with a tapering trunk and short, stout, often pendulous branches forming a evenly pyramidal head. The glossy, dark-green needles radiate around the stem creating a bottle-brush effect. Usually grows 40-60 ft. in height.


From the Image Gallery

9 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 95 feet tall, often shorter.
Leaf: Dark Green

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow
Bloom Time: Apr


USA: GA , NC , SC , TN , VA
Native Distribution: S.w. VA to n. GA
Native Habitat: Dry slopes, bluffs & rocky areas; occasionally in moist places

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Moist
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Moist to dry, well-drained soils.
Conditions Comments: Carolina hemlock is more compact and darker green than Eastern hemlock. It is also more tolerant of city conditions. It is not easily found in the nursery trade, however, even though it is considered a prized ornamental. Droughty conditions are not tolerated.


Description: Layering has proven successful, as has propagation by seed and cuttings. Cutting must be treated.
Seed Collection: Cones mature in one season.
Seed Treatment: A 2-4 month stratification at 40 degrees hastens germination.
Commercially Avail: yes

From the National Organizations Directory

According to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:

Mt. Cuba Center - Hockessin, DE


Bibref 1620 - Gardening with Native Plants of the South (Reprint Edition) (2009) Wasowski, S. with A. Wasowski

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 3 - Flora of North America (2014) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Additional resources

USDA: Find Tsuga caroliniana in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Tsuga caroliniana in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tsuga caroliniana


Record Modified: 2022-09-26
Research By: TWC Staff

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