Tilia americana var. heterophylla
Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla (Vent.) Loudon
American Basswood, White Basswood, Linden
Tiliaceae (Linden Family)
Synonym(s): Tilia eburnea, Tilia heterophylla, Tilia heterophylla var. michauxii, Tilia lasioclada, Tilia michauxii, Tilia monticola
USDA Symbol: TIAMH
A stately, wide-spreading tree 60-80 ft. tall, occasionally much taller. Conical form in youth, the crown becoming rounded with age. Broadly oval leaves, with densely white undersides, sometimes change to yellow in fall but often turn brown and somewhat unsightly. Tends to sprout at the base, producing a clump of tall trees around what was the original tree. Inconspicuous but fragrant flowers.
From the Image Gallery
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Retention: Deciduous
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Fruit Type: Nut
Size Notes: Up to about 100 feet tall.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: White , Yellow
Bloom Time: Apr , May , Jun , Jul
DistributionUSA: AL , AR , DC , FL , GA , IA , IL , IN , KY , LA , MA , MD , ME , MO , MS , NC , NJ , NY , OH , PA , SC , TN , VA , WV
Native Distribution: N.w. FL to LA, n. to PA, WV, s. OH, s. IN, s. IL & MO
Native Habitat: Rich, rocky woods & bluffs
Growing ConditionsWater Use: High
Light Requirement: Part Shade
CaCO3 Tolerance: Low
Soil Description: Rich, rocky soils.
Value to Beneficial InsectsSpecial Value to Native Bees
Special Value to Honey Bees
Supports Conservation Biological Control
This information was provided by the Pollinator Program at The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation.
PropagationDescription: Untreated seeds germinate in 2-3 years. Seeds germinate most easily if fruits are collected as they first trun slightly brown and are planted immediately. Mechanical or chemical pretreatment of the hard pericarp and seed coat hastens germination.
Seed Collection: Seeds germinate most easily if fruits are collected as they first turn slightly brown. For storage, dry seeds and store at room temperature up to two years.
Seed Treatment: Scarify mechanically or soak in concentrated sulfuric acid and moist chill for 3 months.
Commercially Avail: yes
Web ReferenceWebref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Tilia americana var. heterophylla in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Tilia americana var. heterophylla in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Tilia americana var. heterophylla
MetadataRecord Modified: 2023-05-23
Research By: TWC Staff