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Pinus clausa (Sand pine)
Wasowski, Sally and Andy

Pinus clausa

Pinus clausa (Chapm. ex Engelm.) Vasey ex Sarg.

Sand Pine

Pinaceae (Pine Family)

Synonym(s): Pinus clausa ssp. immuginata, Pinus clausa var. immuginata, Pinus virginiana ssp. clausa


USDA Native Status: L48 (N)

Florida’s small to medium-sized pine, a tree with rounded or flattened crown.

The two geographic races differ in time of cone opening. When dense stands of the Ocala race with closed cones are killed by a crown fire, the cones open and release seeds for another forest. The cones of the Choctawhatchee race open at maturity, producing open, uneven-aged stands burned by less destructive surface fires.


From the Image Gallery

2 photo(s) available in the Image Gallery

Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Tree
Leaf Retention: Evergreen
Leaf Arrangement: Fascicled
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Breeding System: Flowers Unisexual , Monoecious
Fruit Type: Cone
Size Notes: Up to about 65 feet tall.
Leaf: Green

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Yellow , Brown
Bloom Time: Aug , Sep
Bloom Notes: Pollen cones brownish yellow. Seed cones maturing in 2 years.


USA: AL , FL , GA , NC
Native Distribution: NE. to S. Florida (Ocala race) and in NW. Florida and extreme S. Alabama (Choctawhatchee race); to 200' (61 m).
Native Habitat: Well-drained sandy soils; often in pure stands.

Growing Conditions

Water Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
CaCO3 Tolerance: None

Find Seed or Plants

View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.


Bibref 841 - Native Alternatives to Invasive Plants (2006) Burrell, C. C.

Search More Titles in Bibliography

Web Reference

Webref 57 - Atlas of Florida Plants (2020) Institute for Systematic Botany
Webref 38 - Flora of North America (2019) Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
Webref 23 - Southwest Environmental Information Network (2009) SEINet - Arizona Chapter

Additional resources

USDA: Find Pinus clausa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus clausa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus clausa


Record Modified: 2022-12-06
Research By: TWC Staff

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