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Plant Database

Search for native plants by scientific name, common name or family. If you are not sure what you are looking for, try the Combination Search or our Recommended Species lists.

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Marsilea villosa

Marsilea villosa Kaulf.

Villous Water-clover, Villous Waterclover, Hawaiian Waterfern, Hawaiian Pepperwort, Ihiihi

Marsileaceae (Water-clover Family)


USDA Symbol: MAVI4

USDA Native Status: HI (N)


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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Herb , Fern
Size Notes: Up to about 8 inches tall, in dense colonies. When plants are submerged, leaves float on water surface.

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Not Applicable
Bloom Time: Jan , Feb , Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov , Dec
Bloom Notes: Non-flowering, sporulating plant. Bloom time refers to spore production. A wet/dry seasonal cycle is required to set spores in its natural habitat.


Native Habitat: Aquatic or amphibious, in and around vernal pools.

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Threatened & Endangered Status

USFWS Species Profile: S00U
Status: Endangered
Historic Range: U.S.A. (HI)
Critical Habitat: 17.96(a)
Special Rules: N/A
This information is derived from the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serrvice Environmental Conservation Online System.

National Wetland Indicator Status

Status: OBL
This information is derived from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Wetland Plant List, Version 3.1 (Lichvar, R.W. 2013. The National Wetland Plant List: 2013 wetland ratings. Phytoneuron 2013-49: 1-241). Click here for map of regions.

Web Reference

Webref 43 - Hawaiian Native Plant Genera (2006) University of Hawaii
Webref 31 - Native Plants Hawai’i (2018) University of Hawaii
Webref 44 - Plants of Hawaii (1997) Starr Environmental

Additional resources

USDA: Find Marsilea villosa in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Marsilea villosa in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Marsilea villosa


Record Modified: 2020-10-28
Research By: CBR

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