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Isodendrion pyrifolium

Isodendrion pyrifolium A. Gray

Wahine Noho Kula

Violaceae (Violet family)

Synonym(s): Isodendrion hawaiiense, Isodendrion hillebrandii, Isodendrion lanaiense, Isodendrion molokaiense, Isodendrion remyi


USDA Native Status: HI (N)

Rare. Shrub with sweetly-fragrant flowers.

The major threats to this species are feral goat, pigs and competition with introduced plant species. (Bibref: 1789).


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Plant Characteristics

Duration: Perennial
Habit: Shrub
Leaf Arrangement: Alternate
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Elliptic , Ovate
Leaf Pubescence: Villose
Leaf Margin: Serrulate
Leaf Texture: Papery
Breeding System: Flowers Bisexual
Inflorescence: Axillary
Size Notes: To about 2 m in height.
Leaf: "Leafy branchlets 1.5-3 mm. in diameter, leafy for 5-2 0 mm., bearing 4 -8 leaves in a term inal crowd ed plume, the leaves mostly ascending; this upper stem closely appressed white puberulent but stem and hairs both largely concealed by the crowded, imbricate stipules ; stipules 4-4.7 mm. long, narrowly deltoid; slightly oblique, the heavy raised midrib densely app ressed puberulent, the sides brown membranous and ciliolate; petioles 5- 9 mm. lon g, slender, closely appressed white puberulent; blades 2.5- 5.4 cm. long, 12-28 mm. wide, chartaceous, above dark green, subglabrate except for the veins towards the base, below paler and appressed puberulent, ovate or even elliptic, the margin subentire or on the larger leaves barely subserrulate, the veins not conspicuous;" (Reslit: 2850).
Flower: "Flowers solitary in axillary short shoots; corolla caducous, blue, weakly zygomorphic, petals prolonged into a "tube" with bottom petal slightly longer than others and weakly differentiated, scarcely saccate at base; filaments free, anthers dehiscing laterally". (Bibref: 1788). Sepals five, distinct, unequal, persistent. Petals five. Stamens 5, unequal or subequal, free on the receptacle ; filaments ligulate. (Reslit: 2850).
Fruit: Fruit is a capsule. (Bibref: 1786). Thick-walled. (Bibref: 1788). "Petals and stamens marcescent, persisting around the fruit." (Bibref: 1788).

Bloom Information

Bloom Color: Green
Bloom Notes: Corollas pale green.


Native Distribution: Endemic to the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Lanai, Niihau and Kauai. (Webref: 28).
Native Habitat: Dry shrublands. (Webref: 28).


Use Ornamental: Owing to the rarity of this species and its imperilied status, no horticultural use is warranted.
Fragrant Flowers: yes

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Threatened & Endangered Status

USFWS Species Profile: Q1XK
Status: Endangered
Historic Range: U.S.A. (HI)
Critical Habitat: 17.96(a)
Special Rules: N/A
This information is derived from the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Serrvice Environmental Conservation Online System.

Web Reference

Webref 6 - Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database] (2018) USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Webref 27 - USDA Plants Database (2018) USDA, NRCS.

Additional resources

USDA: Find Isodendrion pyrifolium in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Isodendrion pyrifolium in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Isodendrion pyrifolium


Record Modified: 2021-01-01
Research By: JAM

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