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Marcus, Joseph A.
Quercus buckleyi Nixon & Dorr
Texas red oak, Buckley oak, Spanish oak, Spotted Oak, Rock Oak
Synonym(s): Quercus texana
USDA Symbol: qubu2
USDA Native Status: L48 (N)
Small to medium tree to 15 m (50 ft) tall. Bark dark gray, smoothish, furrowed into ridges on lower trunk and older branches. Twigs slender, grayish or brownish, glabrous, ending in a cluster of small egg-shaped grayish or brownish buds. Leaves alternate, elliptical or obovate, 6-12 cm (2.4-4.8 in) long and 5-10 cm (2-4 in) wide,deeply divided into 5-9 (usually 7) lobes which are usually broadest toward the tip and end in several bristle-tipped teeth, shiny dark green above, pale green with tufts of hairs in vein axils below, turning brown or red in fall. Fruits are acorns maturing in the second year, egg-shaped, 12-18 mm (0.5-0.7 in) long and 8-14 mm (0.3-0.6 in) wide with a more or less shallow cup covering 1/3-1/2.
This species was named for Samuel B. Buckley, botanist and state geologist of Texas. Buckley oak leaves are similar to the Texas red oak, Q. texana, but the two species do not overlap in their distributions. This species should be considered a conservation concern. The largest known Buckley oak grows in Travis County, Texas.
Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial Habit: Tree Root Type: Tap Leaf Retention: Deciduous Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Complexity: Simple Leaf Shape: Elliptic
, Obovate Leaf Venation: Pinnate Leaf Margin:
Lobed Leaf Apex: Acuminate
, Acute Leaf Base: Truncate Breeding System:
, Monoecious Inflorescence: Catkin Fruit Type: Nut Size Notes:
Height to 75 ft. Width to 60 ft. Leaf:
Glossy green above, light green to coppery-green below Autumn Foliage:
Acorns biennial; cup scales smooth to sparsely pubescent,
￼inner surface smooth, covers 1⁄3 - 1⁄2 of nut; smooth or slightly pubescent,
broadly ovoid nut,
3⁄4 inch (19 mm) long. Size Class:
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Red
Bloom Time: Mar , Apr , May , Jun
, TX Native Distribution: Native
to an area from southcentral Texas to northcentral Oklahoma. Native Habitat:
Restricted habitat associated with limestone ridges, slopes and creek bottoms.
Growing ConditionsWater Use:
Low Light Requirement:
Sun , Part Shade Soil Moisture:
Dry Soil pH:
Alkaline (pH>7.2) CaCO3 Tolerance:
High Cold Tolerant:
Medium Loam, Clay Loam, Clay, Limestone-based Conditions Comments:
Q. buckleyi is more drought tolerant than the Shumard oak, but less hardy. This tree
tolerates alkaline soil as well as neutral and slightly acidic soil. It is a super shade tree
if you do not mind raking leaves in the fall. Red or yellow foliage in the fall.
BenefitUse Ornamental: Fall conspicuous, Attractive, Color
Use Wildlife: Produces large numbers of acorns, which are valuable as food for wildlife.
Use Other: Texas oak is usually too small for sawlogs.
Warning: Leaves and acorns can be toxic to animals if eaten. Humans should generally avoid ingesting plants that are toxic to animals.
Interesting Foliage: yes
Deer Resistant: No
Record Last Modified: 2011-09-24
Research By: TWC Staff