Pinus jeffreyi Balf.
Pinaceae (Pine Family)
Synonym(s): Pinus ponderosa ssp. jeffreyi
USDA Symbol: pije
Jeffery pine has blue-green, twisted needles, 7-9 in. long. Grows from 40-90 ft. with a pyramidal, open crown. Old trees are devoid of branches for more than 1/2 of their height. Cinnamon-brown to yellow-orange, flaky bark. Cones are 6-9 in. long. Large tree with straight axis and open, conical crown of spreading branches and with large cones. Both bark and twigs give off odor of lemon or vanilla when crushed.
The odor of crushed twigs defies exact description. The scent has been likened not only to lemons and vanilla, but also to violets, pineapples, and apples. This species was named for its discoverer, John Jeffrey, the 19th century Scottish botanical explorer who collected seeds and plants in Oregon and California for introduction into Scotland.
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Plant CharacteristicsDuration: Perennial
Leaf Complexity: Simple
Leaf Shape: Linear
Leaf: Dark Green
Size Class: 72-100 ft.
Bloom InformationBloom Color: Brown
Bloom Time: Apr , May
DistributionUSA: CA , NV , OR
Native Distribution: Mts. of s.w. OR, e. CA, w. NV & n. Mex.
Native Habitat: Dry slopes from 6000-9000 ft.
Growing ConditionsWater Use: Medium
Light Requirement: Part Shade
Soil Moisture: Dry
CaCO3 Tolerance: None
Soil Description: Well-drained, rocky soils.
Conditions Comments: Can endure climatic extremes. Needs to be planted in a grove with other pines or oaks.
PropagationDescription: Sow fresh, untreated seed in late fall.
Seed Collection: Collect cones from vigorous trees in late summer and fall just before they completely open to drop seeds. Spread cones on racks to dry so they will release seeds. Cones may be shaken to release seeds. Store at a moisture content of 5-10 % fresh weight.
Commercially Avail: yes
Find Seed or Plants
Find seed sources for this species at the Native Seed Network.
View propagation protocol from Native Plants Network.
From the National Organizations DirectoryAccording to the species list provided by Affiliate Organizations, this plant is on display at the following locations:
Santa Barbara Botanic Garden - Santa Barbara, CA
Native Seed Network - Corvallis, OR
Recommended Species Lists
Find native plant species by state. Each list contains commercially available species suitable for gardens and planned landscapes. Once you have selected a collection, you can browse the collection or search within it using the combination search.View Recommended Species page
Additional resourcesUSDA: Find Pinus jeffreyi in USDA Plants
FNA: Find Pinus jeffreyi in the Flora of North America (if available)
Google: Search Google for Pinus jeffreyi
MetadataRecord Modified: 2007-01-01
Research By: TWC Staff